满语/第11节课 - 语法摘要

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满语发音[编辑]

满文有24个字母,用以书写满语本有的音,另有十个字母用以书写汉语借词的音(these 10 letters are k', g', h', ts', dz', zh', sy' cy', jy' xy' and are dealt with in lesson 12)。以下是满文中书写本有音的字的罗马拼音转写:

  • 六个母音:a,e,i,o,u,v
  • 十八个子音:k,g,h,n,b,p,s,x,t,d,l,m,c,j,y,r,f,w

母音[编辑]

满语有六个“短”母音、两个“长”母音和八个双母音:

  • “短”母音:a,e,i,o,u,v
  • “长”母音:ii,oo
  • “长”母音:ai,ei,oi,ui,io,ao,eo,ioi

子音[编辑]

As for consonants, in addition to the 18 consonants mentioned above Manchu has one combined consonant ‘rs’ and two doubled consonants ‘tt’ and ‘xx’.


注意[编辑]

  • ‘x’发作如英语‘sh’的音;而‘c’发作如英语‘ch’的音。
  • ‘ng’代表的音素在满文中亦存在。
  • 满文中的‘k’、‘g’、‘h’、‘d’与‘t’在书写上有两种形式,使用哪种形式视其后接之母音而定。
  • 在用罗马拼音转写时,在此处用'v'表示的那个母音亦可用'ū'表示。
  • 在用罗马拼音转写时,在此处用'x'表示的那个母音亦可用'sh'或'š'表示。
  • 满语本土词中,没有词汇以‘r’或任何子音丛集(两个或两个以上并排的子音,如英语cloth中的cl)开头。
  • 多数的满语单字以母音或‘n’结尾。但有些借词会以‘ng’结尾,例如wang(意即“王”)这个字。因此满语在某方面近似于开音节语言。
  • 子音丛集可出现在两个母音间,如‘abka’ (heaven)和‘ilha’ (flower)等,但它们实分属两个不同音节的结尾和开头。在多数的词汇中,母音间只有一个子音。

满语音节规则[编辑]

满语有以下的几种音节形式:

音节形式 范例
V 如a-ma(意即“父”)中的‘a-’
VV ‘ai’ (意即“什么”)
VC 如am-ban (意即“官方的”)中的‘am-‘
VCC 如axxasun (意即“动词”)中的‘axx-‘
CV 如du-ka (意即“大门”)中的‘du-’
CVV 如‘moo’ (意即“木”)
CVVC 如‘duin’ (意即“四”)
CVC 如‘den’ (意即“高的”)
CVCC 如faxx-an (意即“努力”)中的‘faxx-‘
CVVV 如‘elioi’ (意即“吕(汉人姓氏)”)

Out of the above syllable structures, CVVV is extremely rare as it can only occur with the dipthong ‘ioi’ and both VCC and CVCC are also quite rare as they can only occur with one of the two doubled consonants ‘tt’ or ‘xx’ or with the combined consonants ‘rs’.

母音和谐[编辑]

满语的母音有母音和谐,也就是说它的某些种类的母音只能和某些特定的母音一起出现。因此它后面的母音必须和前面的母音属于同一类。不过满语的母音和谐不如突厥语族或蒙古语族的语言般地严整。以下是满语母音的类别:

  • “前”母音(“阴性”母音) e
  • “后”母音(“阳性”母音) a,o,v
  • “中性”母音(“中性”母音) u,i

在理论上,前后母音不可并存于同一个词汇当中。然而中性母音可同时与阳性或阴性母音并存。满语有两个种类的母音和谐:

一个词词干中的母音和谐:

这个形式的母音和谐牵涉到一个单词词干内的母音。一般而言,一个单词内只有以下形式的母音组合存在:

  • 若第一个母音是‘a’,则之后的母音可以是‘a’ ,‘v’, ‘i’
  • 若第一个母音是‘e’,则之后的母音可以是‘e’, ‘u’, ‘i’
  • 若第一个母音是‘o’,则之后的母音可以是‘a’, ‘v’, ‘i’
  • 若第一个母音是‘u’,则之后的母音可以是‘a’, ‘e’, ‘u’, ‘i’
  • 若第一个母音是‘i’,则之后的母音可以是‘a’, ‘e’, ‘u’, ‘i’

注意,母音‘o’较少与其他母音一起出现,若它与其他母音一起出现,则几乎都与‘a’,’v’,’i’一起出现,有时则与‘e’一起出现,但基本上从不与‘u’一同出现在同一个词当中;另外母音‘u’与‘i’几乎可与其他所有的母音一同出现。

词干─词缀母音和谐:

词干─词缀母音和谐决定了词缀的母音该如何与词干的母音和谐。其中单音节、双音节多音节词干的规则有些差异,兹列举如下:

单音节词干
................................................... ...................................................
词干母音 后缀母音
a a
o o
e,i,u e
................................................... ...................................................


双音节词干
................................................... ...................................................
词干 后缀
a-a, a-v, a-u, o-i, v-i, a-i, u-i, i-i a
o-o, a-o o
e-e, o-e, e-u, e-i, i-u, u-u e
................................................... ...................................................
多音节词干
................................................... ...................................................
词干 后缀
o-e-i-u a
e-i-u e
................................................... ...................................................

注意:

  • 像‘de’、‘-bu’等词缀之母音不与词干母音发生和谐。
  • 一些单词用母音‘a’与‘e’区分阳性与阴性的概念,如haha (意即“男人”)和hehe (意即“女人”)。
  • 子音‘k’、‘g’和‘h’在书写和口语发音上有两个形式,其中“后”形式用于母音‘a’、’o’、’v’上;而“前”形式用于母音‘e’、’u’、’i’上。
  • 子音‘d’与‘t’在书写上亦有两种形式,其中“后”形式与‘a’、‘o’、‘i’所代表的字母连用;“前”形式与‘e’与‘u’所代表的字母连用。

名词[编辑]

满语的名词有格和数,但没有语法上的性别。有些名词,如bithe (意即“书”),只包含一个词;有些名词是由其他种类的词汇加词缀而成;有些名词,如ahvn deo (意即“兄弟”),则是由许多名词复合而成的。

[编辑]

名词一般无性,然而有些表明雄性事物的词包含阳性母音;有些表明雌性是物的词则包含阴性母音。如haha (意即“男人”)、hehe (意即“女人”)、ama (意即“父亲”)与eme (意即“母亲”)等词皆为其例。

[编辑]

满语中有数种方式表明众数:

  1. 借由后缀-sa (-se, -so, -si)的使用
    • 例:Manjusa 意即“众满人”
  2. 借由后缀-ta, -te, -ri的使用
    • 此类词缀多用于家庭关系上(使用结尾的'n'经常会消失).
    • 例:amata 意即“父亲们”
  3. 借由形容词的使用:
    • 像geren (意即“许多的”)、eiten (意即“全部的”)、tumen (意即“万”)或使用与动词连用的gemu (意即“全部”)。
    • 例:tumen jaka 意即“万物”

[编辑]

满语有五个格,书写时格变变化词缀可与词干一起书写,亦可分开:

  1. 主格
    • 名词预设的格,无后缀
    • 例:bithe - 书本
  2. 属格(-i;以-ng结尾的词用-ni)
    • 这个格用以标示领属关系;亦用以表明动作使用的工具等。
    • 属格例:Ere oci mini eme i bithe - 这是我母亲
    • 工具格例:E.g. Manju gisun i arambi - 满文书写
  3. 与格/方位格(-de)
    • 这个格用以表明事件发生的地点或动作之所向。
    • 动作所向例:Harbin de genehe - 他哈尔滨去
    • 地点例:Harbin de Manjusa labdu - 哈尔滨满人很多
  4. 宾格(-be)
    • 这个格用以表明动作的接受者。
    • 例:I ere bithe be mini eme de buha - 他这本书给我母亲
  5. 夺格(-ci)
    • 这个格用以表示动作时离开的地点或用于比较级中。
    • 离去地点例:monggo gurun ci jihe niyalma - 蒙古来的人
    • 比较例:nikan gisun ci manju gisun ja - 满语汉语简单

代词[编辑]

人称代词[编辑]

就如同名词般,满语的人称代词也有着不同的格变化。满语人称代词的普通形式借由主格来表示。看下表以知所有人称的不同格变化:

..................................................... ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. .................................
人称代词 主格 属格 与格/方位格 宾格 夺格
Bi Mini Minde Mimbe Minci
Si Sini Sinde Simbe Sinci
他/她/它 I Ini Inde Imbe Inci
我们(包含听者) Muse Musei Musede Musebe Museci
我们(不包含听者) Be Meni Mende Membe Menci
你们 Suwe Suweni Suwende Suwembe Suwenci
他们 Ce Ceni Cende Cembe Cenci
..................................................... ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. .................................
  • 和汉语一样,满语的第一人称众数有两种形式:不包含听者“你”的‘be’和包含听者“你”的‘muse’。
  • 如何要表达自己,就用“人称代词属格+‘beye’ (意即“身体”)”的方式来表达,例mini beye (意即“我自己”),sini beye (意即“你自己”)。
  • 所有格代名词借由代名词属格后加‘-ngge’来表示。例如mini-ngge (意即“我的”);Ere bithe miningge (意即“这本书是我的”)。


指示代词[编辑]

满文指示代词如下所示:

..................................................... ................................. ................................. ................................. .................................
这些 那些
主格 Ere Ese Tere Tese
属格 Erei (ereni) Esei Terei Tesei
与格/方位格 Erede (ede) Esede Terede (tede) Tesede
宾格 Erebe Esebe Terebe Tesebe
夺格 Ereci Eseci Tereci Teseci
..................................................... ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. .................................


疑问代词[编辑]

满文疑问代词如下(注意其格变化):

................................. ................................. ................................. .................................
满语 汉语 满语 汉语
We Aibide, yabede 在/到哪
Ai 什么 Adarame 如何
Ya 什么、谁 Aici 什么样的
Ainu 为什么 Udu 多少的
Aibi, yabe 什么地方/哪里 Aba 哪里
................................. ................................. ................................. .................................

Numerals[编辑]

Manchu cardinal numerals[编辑]

The cardinal numbers in Manchu are:

...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ......................................
Emu (emke) 1 Juwan jakvn 18
Juwe 2 Juwan uyun 19
Ilan 3 Orin 20
Duin 4 Orin emu 21
Sunja 5 Gvsin 30
Ninggun 6 Dehu 40
Nadan 7 Susai 50
Jakvn 8 Ninju 60
Uyun 9 Nadanju 70
Juwan 10 Jakvnju 80
Juwan emu 11 Uyunju 90
Juwan juwe 12 Tanggv 100
Juwan ilan 13 Juwe tanggv susai emu 251
Juwan duin 14 Minggan 1,000
Tofohon 15 Tumen 10,000
Juwan ninggun 16 Juwan tumen 100,000
Juwan nadan 17 Tanggv tumen 1,000,000
...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ......................................

Note: the number for 15 is irregular


Manchu ordinal numerals[编辑]

Ordinal numbers in Manchu are formed by adding ‘-ci’ to the end of the cardinal form of the number. In the case of numbers that end in an ‘n’, the final n is dropped (except for in the case of juwan and tumen). E.g:

  • Emuci (First)
  • Juwe tanggv susai emuci (251st)
  • Ningguci (Sixth)
  • Minggaci (One thousandth)
  • Juwanci (Tenth)
  • Tumenci (Ten thousandth)
  • Juwan duici (Fourteenth)


Manchu distributive numerals[编辑]

Distributive numerals can be formed by adding the suffix ‘-ta’, ‘-te’ or ‘-to’ depending on the rules of vowel harmony. E.g.:

  • Ilata (one of three)
  • Tofohoto (one of 15)
  • Emte (one each).


Manchu multiplicative numerals[编辑]

As for multiplicative numerals, one can either use the word ‘ubu’ (times), or use one of the postpositions such as ‘mudan’ (time), ‘jergi’ (time). E.g.:

  • Juwe ubu (twice)
  • Juwe mudan (twice)
  • Juwe jergi (twice)


Manchu fractions[编辑]

Fractional numerals can be formed by either using the genitive or ablative case, or by using the dative/locative case in combination with the word ‘ubu’ (times). E.g

  • Sunja i emu (1/5)
  • Sunja ci emu (1/5)
  • Sunja ubu de emu ubu (1/5).

Adjectives[编辑]

Adjectives can be divided into:

  • Original Adjectives(性质形容词)
  • Adjectives formed from other words (派生形容词)

Original adjectives[编辑]

Original adjectives are adjectives that are not formed from other types of words. Original adjectives can be divided into:

Adjectives describing special features of a person or an object.

For example:

  • Amba (big)
  • Ajige (small)
  • Golmin (long)

Adjectives describing the character (nature) of a person or object.

For example:

  • Sain (good)
  • Ice (new)
  • Fe (old)

Adjectives describing the action or change of state of a person or object.

For example:

  • Hanci (near)
  • Labdu (many)
  • Goro (far away)


Adjectives formed from other words[编辑]

These are adjectives that are formed by adding suffixes (subject to the rules of vowel harmony) to nouns, verbs, or original adjectives. Adjectives formed from other words can be divided into:

Adjectives formed from nouns

These adjectives are formed by adding the suffix ‘-ngge’, ‘-ngga’, or ‘-nggo’ to the end of a noun.

Adjectives formed from verbs

These can be divided into three types:

  • Adjectives that can be formed from verbs by adding the suffix ‘-cuka’, ‘-cuke’.
  • Adjectives that can be formed from verbs by adding the suffix ‘-shvn’, ‘-shun’ ‘-hvn’, ‘-hun’.
  • Adjectives that can be formed from verbs by adding the suffix ‘-su’, ‘-be’, ‘-ba’.

Adjectives formed from original adjectives

These adjectives are formed by adding the suffix ‘-linggv’, ‘-linggu’ to the end of original adjectives. Note: adjectives that end in an ‘n’ drop the ‘n’ when adding the suffix ‘-linggu’, or ‘-linggv’. The suffix ‘-linggu’ can be translated as ‘very’. E.g. if you add ‘-lingu’ to the adjective amba (big) you get ambalinggu (huge).


These suffixes are summarised in this table:

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Original word is a: Suffix Example Translation
Noun -ngge, -ngga, -nggo Orho (grass) Orhonggo (Grassy)
Verb (1) -cuke, -cuka Gelembi (to fear) Gelecuke (scary)
Verb (2) -shvn, -shun, -hun, -hvn Ekiyembi (to reduce) Ekiyehun (insufficient)
Verb (3) -su, -be, -ba Kicembi (to be diligent) Kicebe (diligently)
Original Adjctive -linggv, -linggu Amba (big) Ambalinggu (huge)
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................


Forms of Manchu adjectives[编辑]

Manchu adjectives have three different forms (级):

The normal form (原级)

This is the normal form of the adjective and does not include any suffixes. E.g:

  • Den alin (high mountain)
  • Ice bithe (new book)

The comparative form (比较级)

This form only applies to original adjectives, and involves a comparison, i.e. bigger, smaller etc. To form the comparative form a suffix is added to the end of the adjective to change its meaning. The main suffixes are:

  • -kan (-ken, -kon)
  • -liyan (-liyen), -meliyan
  • -shun, -shvn
  • -si
  • -linggv (-linggu) (see 5.2)

With these suffixes the final ‘n’ of the adjective stem is dropped when the suffix is added. E.g. ‘den’ (high) + -ken becomes ‘deken’ (higher, comparatively high). Examples of the use of these suffixes include:

......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Suffix Meaning Example
-kan, (-ken, -kon) Rather Ambakan (bigger)
-liyan (-liyen), -meliyan A bit Adaliliyan (a bit similar)
-linggv (-linggu) Very Ambalinggv (huge, very big)
-shvn (-shun) Rather Aibishvn (rather swollen)
-si Rather Ajigesi (rather small)
......................................... ......................................... .........................................

The comparative can also be formed by placing the word ‘majige’ (a bit) before the adjective. E.g majige amba (a bit big)


The superlative form (最高级)

The superlative form of the Manchu verb is formed by placing an adverb before the adjective. For example:

  • ‘jaci’ - jaci amba – the biggest
  • ‘umesi’ – umesi sain – very good

Verbs[编辑]

Introduction[编辑]

Manchu verbs (except for three non-changing verbs) all consist of a stem and a final. The dictionary form of a Manchu verb is the present tense form, which includes the verb stem and the suffix ‘-mbi’. E.g.: Arambi (to write) consists of ara + -mbi. All changes for mood or tense in Manchu verbs are done by removing the suffix ‘-mbi’ and by adding another suffix to indicate the tense or mood of the verb (more on this later).

Manchu verbs can be divided into:

  • Original verbs (固有动词) – These are verbs that are not derived from nouns, adjectives or other verbs and include verbs such as ‘arambi’ (to write) etc.
  • Verbs derived from other words (派生动词) – These are verbs that are derived from either nouns, adjectives or other verbs (see voice of Manchu verbs).

Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives are usually formed by adding one of the following suffixes (see table for list of common suffixes) to the end of a noun or an adjective (note the final ‘n’ of the noun or adjective being turned into a verb is usually dropped):

......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Suffix Noun or adjective Verb formed by adding suffix
‘-ta’ (te, to) Gosin (humanity) Gositambi (to love humanity???)
‘-da’ (de, do) Jali (crafy) Jalidambi (to cheat)
‘-na’ (ne, no) acan (a union) Acanambi (to meet)
‘-la’ (le) Aba (a hunt) Abalambi (to hunt)
‘-ra’ (re, ro) Gisun (word) Gisurembi (to speak)
‘-xa’ (xe, xo) Adali (similar) Adalixambi (to be similar)
......................................... ......................................... .........................................


Regular, irregular and non-changing verbs[编辑]

Verbs can also be divided into three categories depending on the change in the verb suffix:

Regular verbs – These are verbs that follow regular suffix change patterns.

Irregular verbs – These are verbs that don’t follow regular suffix change patterns (see irregular verb table 6.8 for full list).

Non-changing verbs – These are three verbs that only have one fixed form. These verbs consist of only a verb stem, although grammatically, they feature all the same properties as regular and irregular verbs. The three non-changing verbs are:

  • ‘bi’ – To have (有).
  • ‘akv’ – To not have (没有).
  • ‘joo’ – To forget about it, not worry about it (算了)

Voice (态) in Manchu verbs[编辑]

Manchu verbs have seven different voices (态). The first voice is the subjective voice, which is the normal verb form. All other voices are formed by adding a suffix between the stem of the verb and the final ‘-mbi’. This forms a new verb. For example: taci-mbi (to study), taci-bu-mbi (to teach). Tacibumbi is the active form of the verb tacimbi and therefore has a completely different meaning. Note: suffixes for tense and mood can be added to the end of the new form of the verb as the suffixes for voice are part of the verb stem. E.g. tacibuha (I taught), tacibura (I will teach) etc.

The seven voices (note the two directional voices count as one voice) are:

  1. 主动 Subjective
    This is the normal voice of the verb and does not take any suffix. E.g.
    • Tacimbi (to study)
  2. 使动 Active (-bu-, -(m)bu-)
    This voice shows that you are doing the action to something or someone. You would usually use the case marker ‘be’ to show what you are doing the action to. E.g.
    • Bi simbe manju gisun Tacibuha (I taught you Manchu)
  3. 被动 Passive (-bu-, -(m)bu-)
    This voice shows that the action is being done to you. You would usually use the case marker ‘de’ to indicate the direction of the action. E.g.
    • Bi tere de tantabuha (I was bashed up by him)
  4. 方向去 Dir (to) (-na-, -ne-, -no-)
    This voice shows the direction of an action and is similar to English ‘to go’. E.g.
    • bithe hvlanambi (to go and read)
  5. 方向来 Dir (fr) (-ji-, -(n)ji-)
    This voice shows the direction of an action and is similar to English ‘to come’.E.g.
    • Bithe hvlajimbi (to come and read)
  6. 6) 齐动 Cooperative (-ca-, -ce-, -co-)
    This voice indicates that an action is being done by a group. It is similar to the English word ‘together’. E.g.
    • Tese tacikv de eficembi (they are playing together at school)
  7. 7) 互动 Reciprocal (-nu-, -ndu-)
    This voice is used to indicate reciprocal action. It is similar to the English word ‘each other’. E.g.
    • Nadan gurun adandume nakarakv (the seven kingdoms fought each other without end)
  8. 8) 连续 Continuous (-da-,-de-;-ta-,-te-;-xa-,-xe-,-xo-; -ca-,-ce-,-co-; -ja-,-je-, -jo-)
    This voice is used to indicate the continuous nature of an action and is like English ‘always’, or ‘often’
    • Bi simbe aisilatambi (I often/always help you)


Tense (时) in Manchu verbs[编辑]

Unlike say French, the conjugation of Manchu verbs is constant regardless of the person doing the action. I.e. the conjugation for you went and I went would both be 'genehe'. This means only one suffix has to be learnt for each of the tenses. It is convenient to split Manchu tenses into simple tenses (of which there are three) and complex tenses all of which are formed from the simple tenses with the addition of either converbs (such as -me or -fi) or auxiliary verbs (such as bi). See table:

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Tense (时) Suffix Example Translation
Simple Tenses
Present/Future -mbi arambi I write / I shall write
Present/Future -ra (-re, -ro) arara I shall write / I write
Past -ha (-he, -ho, -ka, -ke, -ko) Araha I wrote
Past tenses
Indefinite Past -habi (-hebi, -hobi) arahabi I have written
Pluperfect -ha bihe, -ha bihebi Araha bihe I had written
Imperfect 1 -mbihe, -mbihebi arambihe I was writing
Imperfect 2 -me bihe, -me bihebi Arame bihebi I was writing
Present/continuous tenses
Present Continuous 1 -me bi, -me bimbi Arame bi I am writing
Present Continuous 2 -me ilihabi Arame ilihabi I am writing
Present Continuous 3 -mahabi aramahabi I am writing
Present Continuous 4 -me bisire + noun obome bisire jui The child who is washing
Present Continuous 5 -me bisire + postpostn obome bisire de While in the process of washing
Past Continuous 1 -ha bi Araha bi Still writing (仍然在写)
Past Continuous 2 -fi bi arafi bi Still writing (还在写)
Past Continuous 3 -hai bi (-hei bi, hoi bi) arahai bi I’ve been continuously writing 一直写
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Forms (式) of the Manchu verb[编辑]

The Manchu verb has 6 basic forms:


1) Affirmative

This is the normal form of the verb. E.g.

  • Bi te manju gisun be tacime ilihabi (I am currently studying Manchu)
  • Boode mini ama bi (my father is at home)
  • Bi abalara de indahvn gamambi (I take dogs when I go hunting)


2) Negative

This form is the negative form of the verb. Manchu unlike English forms the negative form of a verb by adding suffixes to the verb stem. The two negative forms of Manchu verbs are:

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Present negative -rakv Ararakv Don’t write
Past negative -hakv (-hekv, -hokv) Arahakv Didn’t write
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the negative form are:

  • Bi harbin de genehekv (I did not go to Harbin)
  • Bi manju gisun be gisurerakv (I don't speak Manchu)


3) Interrogative

This is the question form of the verb. The interrogative form has both a positive and a negative form. The negative form is then further divided into a present and past negative interrogative form. The negative interrogative from is basically formed by adding -n to the end of the negative form of the verb (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Interrogative -o Ararao? Are you writing?
Negative Interrogative (present) -rakvn Ararakvn? Are you not writing?
Negative Interrogative (past) -hakvn(-hekvn, -hokvn) Arahakvn? Did you not write?
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the interrogative form are:

  • Si abalara de indahvn gamambio? (do you take dogs when you go hunting?)
  • Si xiao wang be tuwarakvn? (do you not see Xiao Wang?)
  • Si harbin de genehekvn? (haven't you been to Harbin?)


4) Imperative

The imperative form is the form of the verb that is used when you want to tell somebody to do (or not do) something. In Manchu there is a polite imperative form, a negative imperative form and a normal imperative form (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Imperative Ara Write!
Imperative (negative) Ume ……. -ra (-re, -ro) Ume arara Don’t write
Imperative (pol 1) -rao (-reo, -roo) Ararao Write please
Imperative (pol 1) -ki Buki Please give
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the imperative form are:

  • Tuwa (look!)
  • Inde ume tuwara (don't look at him)
  • Si gala be oburoo (wash your hands please)
  • Minde tere bithe be buki (can you please give me that book)


5) Opatative

The optative form is where you want a third person to do something. There are three different optative forms in Manchu (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Opatative 1 -kini Arakini May he write
Opatative 2 -cina Aracina I hope you will write
Opatative 3 -kini sembi Marakini sembi I want you to return
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the optative form are:

  • Si ere buda be jacina (I hope you will eat this food)
  • Bi simbe harbin hoton de genekini sembi (I want you to go to harbin)


6) Desiderative

The desiderative form is where you want to do something. It corresponds to English I want to, or I will. Note the -ki form of the desiderative can also be used as a polite imperative. There are two different desiderative forms in Manchu (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Desiderative 1 -ki Araki I will write
Desiderative 2 -ki sembi Taciki sembi I want to study
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the desiderative form are:

  • Bi sinde majige okto buki (I will give you some medicine)
  • Bi amgaki sembi (I want to sleep)


Converbs (副动词)[编辑]

The main converbs in Manchu are:


1) Coordinative -me

This converb modifies the following verb and is similar to Uyghur '-up'. It also expresses simultaneous action. E.g.

  • Ai baita be arame genehe? (what are you going to do)


2) Subordinative -fi

Refers to a sequence of actions where one action is completed before another one begins. It is like English 'then', and also a bit like 'because' E.g.

  • Bi genefi tuwaki (I will go and (then) have a look)


3) Conditional -ci

This is the conditional converb and is similar to English 'if'. E.g.

  • Bi tuwaci (if I look)


4) Durative -hai (-hei, -hoi)

This converb is used to express that an action occurs or continues at the same time as another action is performed. E.g.

  • Necimbihei yabumbi (to continuously invade)


5) Terminative -tala (-tele, -tolo)

This converb is used to show that an action occurs up to a certain time.

  • Aratala (until he writes)


6) Instrumental -tai (-tei, -toi)

This converb is used to show that an action is being forced

  • Bucetei daharakv (I will not submit even if I die)


7) Preparative -nggala (-nggele, -nggolo)

This converb is like English ‘before’

  • Utala inenggi onggolo (several days ago)


8) Concessive -cibe

This converb is like Enlgish ‘although’

  • Tuttu bicibe (although it is like that)


9) Alternative -ralame (-relame, -rolame)

This converb is used to show that two actions are being performed at the same time

  • Bi yaburalame tuwambi (looking as I’m going along)


10) Simultaneous -mbime

This converb is used to show that one action is occurring (or not) while another action takes place

  • Si baita be sambi sembime, ainu takarakv (while you say you know about the matter, how come you don’t?)

Auxiliary verbs (助动词)[编辑]

Three important auxiliary verbs in Manchu are:

  • Sembi – Sembi means ‘to say’
  • Ombi – ‘Ombi’ can be translated as ‘to become’, ‘to be’, ‘to act as’,
  • Bimbi – ‘bimbi’ can be translated as ‘to be or ‘is’.

Irregular verbs (table)[编辑]

This table is a list of all the irregular Manchu verbs and their irregular forms. Note a blank space indicates that this form of the verb is regular. Note verbs where the suffix ‘-fi’ becomes ‘-pi’ or ‘-mpi’ are not included.

............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ...............................................
Dictionary form Meaning Past tense Future Tense Imperative
gerembi Dawn gereke gerendere
guwembi To avoid guwengke guwendere
colgorombi To be complete colgoroko
ombi To become, can ojoro oso
gvmbi To bite furiously gvndere
gvwaliyambi To change gvwaliyaka
jimbi To come jidere jio
wasimbi To desced, be defeated wasika (wasiha) wasinu
jembi To eat jeke (jengke) jetere (jendere) jefu
tucimbi To exit, to set out, to come out tucike (tucihe) tucinu
sumbi To explain, to get rid of suhe (sungke)
jailambi To flee, hide jailara (jailandara)
ukambi To flee, hide ukaha (ukaka)
bahambi To get baha
xahvrambi To get a cold xahvraka
yombi To go yoro (yondoro)
bimbi To have / at bisire bisu
xumbi To know copletely xungke
baimbi To look for baisu
wembi To melt into wengke were (wendere)
juwambi To open, open one's mounth jawangka (juwaka)
hafumbi To pass through hafuka hafundara
jombi To raise jongko jondoro
wesimbi To raise wesike wesina
teyembi To rest teyere (teyendere)
eldembi To shine on eldeke
xambi To stare xaha (xangka)
gajimbi To take back gaju
gombi To take back gondoro
gaimbi To take, to want gaisu
cambi 支起、插 caha (cangka)
sosombi 泻、拉肚子 sosoko
jalumbi 满盈 jaluka
yumbi 贪溺、沉醉、容得下、浸润、诱哄 yungke yudere (yundere)
bambi 倦,发懒 bangka bandara
fumbi To wipe fungke
............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ...............................................

Adverbs[编辑]

Adverbs are words that modify other words except for nouns. Adverbs usually express the time, place or degree of an action and typically answer questions such as how?, when? why? or where? Manchu adverbs can be primitive adverbs which are indeclinable words such as ‘inu’ (yes) or they can be formed by adding suffixes (usually case markers) to the end of nouns, or pronouns. Most numerals can also be used as adverbs.


Some common Manchu adverbs include:

................................... ................................... ................................... ...................................
Manchu English Manchu English
Absi Where Gaitai Suddenly
Adarame How Gemu All
Aifini Already Gubci All
Ainu Why Heni a bit
Ambula Big, many Ishunde Each other
Ani Normally Jaci Extremely
Asuru Very Jing In the process of (正)
Atanggi What time Juken At least
Beri beri Each one Kemuni Still
Biretei All Majige A bit
Cohotoi Especially Meni meni Each one
Da ani As before Mujakv Extremely
Daci From the beginning Naranggi Finally
Dade In the beginning Ne / te Now
Dembei Very Nokai The most
Dule Originally Siraduhai Afterwards
Ele More Teni Just thn
Elei More Tuktan First tim, start
Elekei Almost Umesi Very
Emgeri Already Ume Don't, can't
Enteheme Forever Unde Still haven't
Esa Very Urui Certainly
Yooni All Urunakv Certainly
................................... ................................... ................................... ...................................


Some locational adverbs (with their noun form) include:

................................... ................................... ................................... ...................................
Meaning Noun Locative (where) Directional (where to)
-la/-le/-lo -rgi -si
East Dele Dergi (wesihun)
West Wala Wargi (wasihvn)
South (Juleri) Julergi Julesi
North Amala Amargi Amasi
Middle Dulin Dulimbade
In front (Juleri) Julergi Julesi
Behind Amala Amargi Amasi
Left Hashv Hashv ergi
Right Ici Ici ergi
Above Dele,ninggu Dergi ,ninggude wesihun
Below Fejile ,wala Fejergi,wargi wasihvn
Inside Dolo Dorgi Dosi
Outside Tule (tuleri) Tulergi Tulesi
On top Oilo Oilorgi
Here Ebele Ebergi Ebsi
There Cala Cargi Casi
................................... ................................... ................................... ...................................

Postpositions[编辑]

Some of the more commonly used Manchu postpositons are:

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Adali The same as Jakade Because of, when
Baru To Jalin Because
Canggi Only Manggi After
Dahame Because of this Nerginde When
Ebsi Since Ninggude On top of
Emde Together with Onggolo Before
Emgi Together with Saka And then
Erigde At … direction Sidende When
Fonde When Songkoi In accordance with
Haran Because of Tetendere Since…
Ici To Tulgiyen Apart from this..
Ishvn To Turgunde Because of
Jaka Just then
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................


Linking Words[编辑]

Some of the more commonly used Manchu linking words are:

.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ..................................................................
Jai… …and… Bime… … and at the same time …
Emu derei ......emu derei...... …on the one hand…. And on the other… Ememu ....... ememu ......    … on the one hand …. And on the other…
Ememungge ...... ememungge .....  … on the one hand …. And on the other… Eici ........ eici ........... Either…..or……
Embici........... embici..........  Either…..or…… ........teile akv......... Inu/geli  Not only….. But also….
.........dade, geli Not only….. But also… .............sere anggala.............Inu/geli Not only….. But also…
Tuttu ofi, uttu ofi, tuttu Therefore… ….jakade Because
…turgunde Because …ofi Because (after becoming)
…ohode Because of (when it became) Teni… Then …
…seme Because of... Aika .......... oci If…then…
Aikabade ......... oci If…then… Unenggi .............oci If…then…
..................oci If…then .............. ohode , teni ................. If…then… (more for only if A then B)
Udu.............. seme Although… Udu ............ bicibe , inu ................  Although… also…
Udu ............ (verb-)cibe   Although… Udu ............ ocibe , inu.................. Although… also…
Udu .................secibe , inu .............. Although… also… Uthai ............. ocibe  Even though…
Uthai ................. seme   Even though… Uthai ................ okini Even though…
Damu But... only… Tuttu oci… In that case…
Uttu oci… In this case… Tuttu bime… Yet/however…
Uttu bime… Yet/however… Yuttu seme… Yet/however…
Tuttu secibe… Yet/however… Neneme… On the contrary
.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ..................................................................


Information on Linking words was taken from the Manchu Sky website (满洲天空网站). More specifically from a post by Baksi titled: 满洲族语的连词 (see link below)


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