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人類生理學/泌尿系統

维基教科书,自由的教学读本

概述[编辑]

泌尿系统的功能[编辑]

泌尿系统器官[编辑]

Kidneys And Their Structure[编辑]

Renal Vein[编辑]

Renal Artery[编辑]

Ureters[编辑]

Urinary Bladder[编辑]

Urethra[编辑]

Nephrons[编辑]

Glomerulus[编辑]

Glomerular Capsule or Bowman's Capsule[编辑]

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)[编辑]

Loop of the Nephron or Loop of Henle[编辑]

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)[编辑]

Collecting ducts[编辑]

尿的形成[编辑]

Filtration[编辑]

Reabsorption[编辑]

Secretion[编辑]

维持水盐平衡[编辑]

Reabsorption of water[编辑]

Reabsorption of Salt[编辑]

Hypernatremia[编辑]

Diuretics[编辑]

肾疾病[编辑]

Diabetes Insipidus[编辑]

Urinary tract infections (UTI's)[编辑]

Dialysis and Kidney Transplant[编辑]

Review Questions[编辑]

詞彙表[编辑]

Antidiuretic: lessening or decreasing of urine production or an agent that decreases the release of urine.

Catheterisation: a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage or injection of fluids or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterisation. In most uses a catheter is a thin, flexible tube: a "soft" catheter; in some uses, it is a larger, solid tube: a "hard" catheter.

Dehydration: condition resulting from excessive loss of body fluid.

Diabetes: a general term for a disease characterized by the begining stages and onset of renal failure. It is derived from the Greek word diabaínein, that literally means "passing through," or "siphon", a reference to one of diabetes' major symptoms—excessive urine production.

Diuresis: secretion and passage of large amounts of urine.

Diuretic: increasing of urine production, or an agent that increases the production of urine.

Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates stem cells in the bone marrow to produce red blood cells

Fibrous Capsule: the kidney's loose connective tissue

Glomerulus: capillary tuft that receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation.

Gluconeogenesis: the cycle of producing a glucose form fat or protein; preformed by the kidney in times of long fasting, initially gluconeogenesis is preformed by the liver

Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells: Renin-secreting cells that are in contact with the macula densa and the afferent arterioles of the renal nephron.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA): A site of juxtaglomerular cells connecting with the macula densa where renin is secreted and sensor for control of secretion of golmerular filtration rate.

Loop of Henle/ Nephron Loop: u-shaped tube that consists of a descending limb and ascending limb; primary role is to concentrate the salt in the interstitium, the tissue surrounding the loop

Medullary Pyramids or Renal Pyramids: the cone shaped masses in the kidney

Micturition: another name for excretions

Nephron: basic structural and functional unit of the kidney; chief function is to regulate water and soluble substances by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine

Podocytes: filtration membrane, in the visceral layer of the bowman's capsule

Renal Calculi: kidney stones, solid crystals of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys

Renal Cortex: outer portion of the kidney

Renal Lobe: each pyramid together with the associated overlying cortex

Renal Pelvis: a central space, or cavity that transmits urine to the urinary bladder via the ureter

Renin: hormone released by the Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidneys when blood pressure falls

TURP: transurethral resection of the prostate. During TURP, an instrument is inserted up the urethra to remove the section of the prostate that is blocking urine flow. This is most commonly caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A TURP usually requires hospitalization and is done using a general or spinal anesthetic. It is now the most common surgery used to remove part of an enlarged prostate.

Urethra: a muscular tube that connects the bladder with the outside of the body

Ureters: two tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Urine: liquid produced by the kidneys, collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra

Urinary Bladder: a hollow, muscular and distensible or elastic organ that sits on the pelvic floor

Urinary System: a group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream

References[编辑]