人體中大約有兩百多種不同的細胞。當許多相似功能的細胞聚在一起，我們稱為組織（tissue），像是肌肉組織、神經組織……等等。 There are about 200 different kinds of specialized cells in the human body. When many identical cells are organized together it is called a tissue (such as muscle tissue, nervous tissue, etc). Various tissues organized together for a common purpose are called organs (e.g. the stomach is an organ, and so is the skin, the brain, and the uterus).
Ideas about cell structure have changed considerably over the years. Early biologists saw cells as simple membranous sacs containing fluid and a few floating particles. Today's biologists know that cells are inconceivably more complex than this. Therefore, a strong knowledge of the various cellular organelles and their functions is important to any physiologist. If a person's cells are healthy, then that person is healthy. All physiological processes, disease, growth and development can be described at the cellular level.
- 主動運輸（Active Transport）
- 三磷酸腺苷（Adenosine Triphosphate，ATP）
- 整體流動（Bulk Flow）
- 細胞膜（Cell Membrane）
- 細胞的外膜，有時候也叫做質膜（plasma membrane）
- a water-like substance that fills cells. The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and the cellular organelles, except the cell nucleus. The cytosol is made up of water, salts, organic molecules and many enzymes that catalyze reactions. The cytoplasm holds all of the cellular organelles outside of the nucleus, maintains the shape and consistency of the cell, and serves as a storage place for chemical substances.
- the diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane. Most commonly heard of when a patient has had renal failure. In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases.
- 內分泌細胞（Endocrine cells）
- 類似外分泌細胞（exocrine cells），不過內分泌細胞是將產物分泌於體內
- the capture of a substance outside the cell when the plasma membrane merges to engulf it
- 內質網（Endoplasmic Reticulum，ER）
- organelle that play an important role in making proteins and shuttling cellular products; also involved in metabolisms of fats, and the production of various materials
- 表皮細胞（Epithelial Cells）
- cells that aid in secretion, absorption, protection, trans-cellular transport, sensation detection, and selective permeability
- 外分泌細胞（Exocrine Cells）
- the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell
- 促進擴散（Facilitated Diffusion）
- the diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane
- 高基氏體（Golgi Apparatus）
- "packages" cellular products in sacs called vesicles so that the products can cross the cell membrane and exit the cell
- process in which sugars (glucose) are converted to acid
- sac-like compartments that contain a number of powerful degradative enzymes
- provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the cell shape, and in some cases enable cell movements
- function as the framework along which organelles and vesicles move within a cell
- the organelles that function as the cell "powerhouse", generating ATP
- controls the cell; houses the genetic material
- bodies embedded in the cytoplasm that serve to physically separate the various metabolic activities that occur within cells
- the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration.
- 被動運輸（Passive Transport）
- the movement of substances down a concentration gradient and does not require energy use
- organelles in which oxygen is used to oxidize substances, breaking down lipids and detoxifying certain chemicals
- a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or "food vacuole." In animals, phagocytosis is performed by specialized cells called phagocytes, which serve to remove foreign bodies and thus fight infection. In vertebrates, these include larger macrophages and smaller granulocytes, types of blood cells. Bacteria, dead tissue cells, and small mineral particles are all examples of objects that may be phagocytosed.
- also called cellular drinking, is a form of endocytosis, a process in which small particles are taken in by a cell by splitting into smaller particles. The particles then form small vesicles which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze, or to break down, the particles. This process requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
- 受體介導的內吞作用（Receptor-mediated Endocytosis）
- occurs when specific molecules in the fluid surrounding the cell bind to specialized receptors in the plasma membrane
- 紅血球（Red Blood Cells，erythrocytes）
- cells that collect oxygen in the lungs and deliver it through the blood to the body tissues
- play an active role in the complex process of protein synthesis, where they serve as the structures that facilitate the joining of amino acids
- 簡單擴散（Simple Diffusion）
- the net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
- spaces in the cytoplasm that sometimes serve to carry materials to the cell membrane for discharge to the outside of the cell
- 白血球（White Blood Cells，leukocytes）
- produced in the bone marrow and help the body to fight infectious disease and foreign objects in the immune system