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地理学导论/地球的历史

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地質年代表[编辑]

  1. Paleontologists often refer to faunal stage英语faunal stages rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. For an excellent time-ordered list of faunal stages, see The Paleobiology Database.於2006年3月19日查閱.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in radiometric dating and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point has been internationally agreed upon: see Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Points - International Commission on Stratigraphy,存于互联网档案馆 for a complete list.
  3. References to the "Post-Cambrian Supereon" are not universally accepted, and therefore must be considered unofficial.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Historically, the 新生代 has been divided up into the 第四紀 and 第三紀 sub-eras, as well as the 新近纪 and 古近纪 periods. The 2009 version of the ICS time chart recognizes a slightly extended Quaternary as well as the Paleogene and a truncated Neogene, the Tertiary having been demoted to informal status.
  5. 王瑜 成星:“国际地层委员会更新国际年代地层表 4200年前地球进入新的地质时期——梅加拉亚期”,《中国自然资源报》 发布时间:2018-08-01
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 For more information on this, see the following articles: 地球大气层, 二氧化碳, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere英语Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, global warming, 氣候變遷, Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png, Image:65 Myr Climate Change.png, Image:Five Myr Climate Change.png, and Template:DF temperature
  7. The start time for the Holocene epoch is here given as 11,700 years ago. For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see Holocene.
  8. 8.0 8.1 在北美,石炭纪被细分为 Mississippian英语Mississippian and Pennsylvanian英语Pennsylvanian Periods.
  9. 9.0 9.1 上石炭紀地質在歐美及中國均以盛產煤炭著名,因此便以石炭紀為此時代地層的名稱,但在美國則以密士西必紀作為下石炭紀,另以賓夕法尼亞紀稱上部石炭紀。[1]
  10. The Precambrian is also known as Cryptozoic.
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 The Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean are often collectively referred to as the Precambrian Time or sometimes, also the Cryptozoic.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Defined by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age英语Global Standard Stratigraphic Age).
  13. The age of the oldest measurable craton, or continental crust, is dated to 3600–3800 Ma
  14. Though commonly used, the Hadean 不是一个正式的 eon 并且没有商定太古宙和太古宙的下界。 Hadean 有时也被称为 Priscoan 或 Azoic。 有时,可以发现冥古界是根据 lunar geologic time scale. These eras include the Cryptic and Basin Groups (which are subdivisions of the Pre-Nectarian era), Nectarian, and Early Imbrian英语Early Imbrian units.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 These unit names were taken from the Lunar geologic timescale and refer to geologic events that did not occur on Earth. Their use for Earth geology is unofficial.
  16. Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 1999, 134 (1): 3. Bibcode:1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465.  The oldest rock on Earth is the Acasta Gneiss英语Acasta Gneiss, and it dates to 4.03 Ga, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.
  17. Geology.wisc.edu