OpenSCAD用户手册/其他语言特性

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特殊变量[编辑]

特殊变量为向模块与函数传递参数提供了一种替代方法。所有的用户或OpenSCAD自身通过在变量前加入'$'来定义特殊变量,这与lisp中的特殊变量定义方式相似。Modules and function see all outside variables in addition to those passed as arguments or defined internally.

常规变量的赋值发生在编译时,因此,对于所有调用而言其值是静态的。

Special variables pass along their value from within the scope (see scope of variables) from which the module or function is called. This means that special variables can potentially have a different value each time a module or function is called.

regular  = "regular global";
$special = "special global";
module show() echo("         in show    ", regular,"   ", $special );

echo ("         outside    ", regular,"   ", $special );
          // ECHO: "         outside    ", "regular global", "   ", "special global"
  
for ( regular = [0:1] ){ echo("in regular loop     ", regular,"   ", $special ); show();}
          // ECHO: "in regular loop     ", 0, "   ", "special global"
          // ECHO: "         in show    ", "regular global", "   ", "special global"
          // ECHO: "in regular loop     ", 1, "   ", "special global"
          // ECHO: "         in show    ", "regular global", "   ", "special global"

for ( $special = [5:6] ){ echo("in special loop     ", regular,"   ", $special ); show();}
          // ECHO: "in special loop     ", "regular global", "   ", 5
          // ECHO: "         in show    ", "regular global", "   ", 5
          // ECHO: "in special loop     ", "regular global", "   ", 6
          // ECHO: "         in show    ", "regular global", "   ", 6

show();
          // ECHO: "         in show    ", "regular global", "   ", "special global"

This is useful when multiple arguments need to be passed thru several layers of module calls.

Several special variables are already defined by OpenSCAD.


$fa, $fs 与 $fn[编辑]

特殊变量$fa, $fs 与 $fn控制着用于生成弧的细分平面数量:

$fa为片段的最小角度。即使是一个再巨大的圆形,也不能通过此值而将其划分为多于360个片段。此特殊变量的默认值为12 (即,整个圆形分为30个片段)。其最小值为0.01。若企图将其设置为小于0.01的值,会产生一个警告。

$fs为片段的最小尺寸。Because of this variable very small circles have a smaller number of fragments than specified using $fa. 此特殊变量的默认值为2。其最小值为0.01。若企图将其设置为小于0.01的值,会产生一个警告。

$fn通常为0。当此变量大于0时,则忽略另外两个变量($fa, $fs),且以此值作为片段数量来渲染整个圆形。其默认值为0。

片段数量越多,占用的内存与CPU也就越多,较大值会令大多数系统跪掉。 Depending on the design, $fn values, and the corresponding results of $fa & $fs, should be kept small, at least until the design is finalised when it can be increased for the final result. A $fn over 100 is not recommended or only for specific circumstances, and below 50 would be advisable for performance.

TIP: If you want to create a circle/cylinder/sphere which has a axis aligned integer bounding box (i.e. a bounding box that has integral dimensions, and an integral position) use a value of $fn that is divisible by 4.


当采用$fa与$fs来确定一个圆形的片段数量时,OpenSCAD使用的片段从不会少于5个。

以下是计算圆形中片段数量的C代码:

      int get_fragments_from_r(double r, double fn, double fs, double fa)
      {
             if (r < GRID_FINE) return 3;
             if (fn > 0.0) return (int)(fn >= 3 ? fn : 3);
             return (int)ceil(fmax(fmin(360.0 / fa, r*2*M_PI / fs), 5));
      }

Or you can embed this OpenSCAD version in your code to work out what's going on, you need to set r= to your size

   echo(n=($fn>0?($fn>=3?$fn:3):ceil(max(min(360/$fa,r*2*PI/$fs),5))),a_based=360/$fa,s_based=r*2*PI/$fs);

Spheres are first sliced into as many slices as the number of fragments being used to render a circle of the sphere's radius, and then every slice is rendered into as many fragments as are needed for the slice radius. You might have recognized already that the pole of a sphere is usually a pentagon. This is why.

The number of fragments for a cylinder is determined using the greater of the two radii.

The method is also used when rendering circles and arcs from DXF files. The variables have no effect when importing STL files.

You can generate high resolution spheres by resetting the $fX values in the instantiating module:

      $fs = 0.01;
      sphere(2);

或简单地通过传入特殊变量作为参数:

      sphere(2, $fs = 0.01);

您甚至可以直接为特殊变量乘以某个值而非将其重置:

      sphere(2, $fs = $fs * 0.01);

$t[编辑]

$t变量用于制作动画。如果您通过设置view->animate开启动画,并指定"FPS(帧率)"以及"Steps(步长)","Time"字段显示的就是$t的当前值。掌握了这些信息,便能令您的设计以动画效果展示出来。The design is recompiled every 1/"FPS" seconds with $t incremented by 1/"Steps" for "Steps" times, ending at either $t=1 or $t=1-1/steps.

如果选中"Dump Pictures(转存图片)",那么就会在.scad文件所在的相同目录下创建一系列图片,此功能会利用以下$t值,并将图像保存在下列文件中:

  • $t=0/Steps filename="frame00001.png"
  • $t=1/Steps filename="frame00002.png
  • $t=2/Steps filename="frame00003.png"
  • . . .
  • $t=1-3/Steps filename="frame<Steps-2>.png"
  • $t=1-2/Steps filename="frame<Steps-1>.png"
  • $t=1-1/Steps filename="frame00000.png"

或者,对于其他Steps步长值,它将按以下模式执行:

  • $t=0/Steps filename="frame00001.png"
  • $t=1/Steps filename="frame00002.png
  • $t=2/Steps filename="frame00003.png"
  • . . .
  • $t=1-3/Steps filename="frame<Steps-2>.png"
  • $t=1-2/Steps filename="frame<Steps-1>.png"
  • $t=1-1/Steps filename="frame<Steps-0>.png"
  • $t=1-0/Steps filename="frame00000.png"

Which pattern it chooses appears to be an unpredictable, but consistent, function of Steps. For example, when Steps=4, it follows the first pattern, and outputs a total of 4 files. When Steps=3, it follows the second pattern, and also outputs 4 files. It will always output either Steps or Steps+1 files, though it may not be predictable which. When finished, it will wrap around and recreate each of the files, looping through and recreating them forever.

$vpr, $vpt 与 $vpd[编辑]

这三个特殊变量包含当前渲染时的视口旋转、视口平移与摄像机距离三种信息。移动视口并不会影响它们的值(wconly:??)。在展示动画期间会在每帧都更新它们的值。

  • $vpr表示旋转
  • $vpt表示平移(即此值不受旋转或缩放操作影响)
  • $vpd表示摄像机距离 [请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]

示例

 cube([10, 10, $vpr[0] / 10]);

如果开启动画循环(无需使用$t变量),这段代码将使立方体随观察视角改变大小。

You can also make bits of a complex model vanish as you change the view.

All three variables are writable but only assignments at the top-level of the main file will have an effect on the viewport. [请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]

示例

 $vpr = [0, 0, $t * 360];

which allows a simple 360 degree rotation around the Z axis in animation mode.

The menu command Edit - Paste Viewport Rotation/Translation copies the current value of the viewport, but not the current $vpr or $vpt.

$preview[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

当处于OpenCSG预览模式(F5)下,$preview为true。在处于渲染模式(F6)下,$preview为false。

This can, for example, be used to reduce detail during preview to save time, without losing detail in the final rendered result:

$fn = $preview ? 12 : 72;
sphere(r = 1);

请注意,渲染模块不会影响$preview:

render(){
    $fn = $preview ? 12 : 72;
    sphere(r = 1);
}

Another use could be to make the preview show an assembly view and the render generate just the printed parts laid out for printing.

If printed parts need extra features that are removed post printing, for example support for suspended holes, then the preview can omit these to show the finished part after post processing.

When OpenSCAD is run from the command line $preview is only true when generating a PNG image with OpenCSG. It is false when generating STL, DXF and SVG files with CGAL. It is also false when generating CSG and ECHO files. This may or may not be what you want, but you can always override it on the command line like any other variable with the -D option.

echo语句[编辑]

此函数会在编译窗口(又名控制台)中打印特定内容。有助于调试代码。参见字符串函数 str().

此函数显示的数值经四舍五入保留5位有效数字。

OpenSCAD控制台支持HTML标记语言的一个子集。细节请见Qt Docs

It can be handy to use 'variable=variable' as the expression to easily label the variables, see the example below.

用例[编辑]

用例:

my_h=50;
my_r=100;
echo("This is a cylinder with h=", my_h, " and r=", my_r);
echo(my_h=my_h,my_r=my_r); // shortcut
cylinder(h=my_h, r=my_r);
//
echo("Hello Qt!");

工作台中显示的结果为:

ECHO: "This is a cylinder with h=", 50, " and r=", 100
ECHO: my_h = 50, my_r = 100
ECHO: "Hello Qt!"

四舍五入示例[编辑]

针对四舍五入设置的示例:

a=1.0;
b=1.000002;
echo(a);
echo(b);

if(a==b){ // 尽管回显结果相同,但是二值仍有差别
    echo ("a==b");
}else if(a>b){
    echo ("a>b");
}else if(a<b){
    echo ("a<b");
}else{
    echo ("???");
}

小数与大数示例[编辑]

c=1000002;
d=0.000002;
echo(c); //1e+06
echo(d); //2e-06

HTML[编辑]

HTML工作示例:

echo("<h1>Heading</h1>");
echo("<b>Bold</b> <i>italic</i> <big>big</big>");
echo("i<sub>1</sub><sup>2<sup>");
echo("<font color='red'>red</font> <font color='green'>green</font> <font color='blue'>blue</font>");

不会生效的代码示例:

echo("<img src='http://www.openscad.org/assets/img/logo.png'></img>");
echo("<a href='http://en.wikibooks.org/'>wikibooks</a>");

请注意:可以复制输出再将其粘贴到OpenOffice中,图片与链接在里面都可正常工作。

echo函数[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

Echo can be used in expression context to print information while the function/expression is evaluated. The output is generated before the expression evaluation to allow debugging of recursive functions.

示例

 a = 3; b = 5;
 
 // echo() prints values before evaluating the expression
 r1 = echo(a, b) a * b; // ECHO: 3, 5
 
 // using let it's still easy to output the result
 r2 = let(r = 2 * a * b) echo(r) r; // ECHO: 30
 
 // use echo statement for showing results 
 echo(r1, r2); // ECHO: 15, 30

A more complex example shows how echo() can be used in both descending and ascending path of a recursive function. The result() helper function is a simple way to output the value of an expression after evaluation.

Example printing both input values and result of recursive sum()

 v = [4, 7, 9, 12];
 function result(x) = echo(result = x) x;
 function sum(x, i = 0) = echo(str("x[", i, "]=", x[i])) result(len(x) > i ? x[i] + sum(x, i + 1) : 0);
 echo("sum(v) = ", sum(v));
 
 // ECHO: "x[0]=4"
 // ECHO: "x[1]=7"
 // ECHO: "x[2]=9"
 // ECHO: "x[3]=12"
 // ECHO: "x[4]=undef"
 // ECHO: result = 0
 // ECHO: result = 12
 // ECHO: result = 21
 // ECHO: result = 28
 // ECHO: result = 32
 // ECHO: "sum(v) = ", 32

render[编辑]

Forces the generation of a mesh even in preview mode. Useful when the boolean operations become too slow to track.

Needs description.

用例:

render(convexity = 2) difference() {
 cube([20, 20, 150], center = true);
 translate([-10, -10, 0])
  cylinder(h = 80, r = 10, center = true);
 translate([-10, -10, +40])
  sphere(r = 10);
 translate([-10, -10, -40])
  sphere(r = 10);
}

surface[编辑]

Surface reads Heightmap information from text or image files.

参数

file
String. The path to the file containing the heightmap data.
center
Boolean. This determines the positioning of the generated object. If true, object is centered in X- and Y-axis. Otherwise, the object is placed in the positive quadrant. Defaults to false.
invert
Boolean. Inverts how the color values of imported images are translated into height values. This has no effect when importing text data files. Defaults to false. [请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]
convexity
Integer. The convexity parameter specifies the maximum number of front sides (back sides) a ray intersecting the object might penetrate. This parameter is only needed for correctly displaying the object in OpenCSG preview mode and has no effect on the final rendering.

文本文件格式[编辑]

The format for text based heightmaps is a matrix of numbers that represent the height for a specific point. Rows are mapped to the Y-axis, columns to the X axis. The numbers must be separated by spaces or tabs. Empty lines and lines starting with a # character are ignored.

图片[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]

Currently only PNG images are supported. Alpha channel information of the image is ignored and the height for the pixel is determined by converting the color value to Grayscale using the linear luminance for the sRGB color space (Y = 0.2126R + 0.7152G + 0.0722B). The gray scale values are scaled to be in the range 0 to 100.

示例[编辑]

示例1:

//surface.scad
surface(file = "surface.dat", center = true, convexity = 5);
%translate([0,0,5])cube([10,10,10], center =true);
#surface.dat
10 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 5 5 
9 8 7 6 6 4 3 2 1 0 
8 7 6 6 4 3 2 1 0 0
7 6 6 4 3 2 1 0 0 0
6 6 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 0
6 6 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0
6 6 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
6 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

结果:

Openscad surface example x1.png

示例2:

 // example010.dat generated using octave:
 // d = (sin(1:0.2:10)' * cos(1:0.2:10)) * 10;
 // save("example010.dat", "d");
 intersection() {
   surface(file = "example010.dat", center = true, convexity = 5);
   rotate(45, [0, 0, 1]) surface(file = "example010.dat", center = true, convexity = 5); 
 }

Openscad surface example x2.png

示例3:

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]

// 示例 3a
scale([1, 1, 0.1])
  surface(file = "smiley.png", center = true);
// 示例 3b
scale([1, 1, 0.1])
  surface(file = "smiley.png", center = true, invert = true);
输入的图片
输入的图片
surface函数的输出
示例3a: surface(invert = false)
surface函数的逆输出
示例3b: surface (invert = true)
示例3: 用surface()函数处理以PNG图片充当的高度图

示例4:

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2015.03]

// 示例4
surface(file = "BRGY-Grey.png", center = true, invert = false);

search[编辑]

The search() function is a general-purpose function to find one or more (or all) occurrences of a value or list of values in a vector, string or more complex list-of-list construct.

查找函数的用法[编辑]

search( match_value , string_or_vector [, num_returns_per_match [, index_col_num ] ] );

查找函数的参数[编辑]

  • match_value
  • Can be a single string value. Search will loop over the characters in the string and search for each one in the second argument. The second argument must be a string or a list of lists (this second case is not recommended). The search function does not search for substrings.
  • Can be a single numerical value.
  • Can be a list of values. The search function will search for each item on the list.
  • To search for a list or a full string give the list or string as a single element list such as ["abc"] to search for the string "abc" (See Example 9) or [[6,7,8]] to search for the list [6,7,8]. Without the extra brackets search will look separately for each item in the list.
  • If match_value is boolean then search returns undef.
  • string_or_vector
  • The string or vector to search for matches.
  • If match_value is a string then this should be a string and the string is searched for individual character matches to the characters in match_value
  • If this is a list of lists, v=[[a0,a1,a2...],[b0,b1,b2,...],[c0,c1,c2,...],...] then search looks only at one index position of the sublists. By default this is position 0, so the search will look only at a0, b0, c0, etc. The index_col_num parameter changes which index is searched.
  • If match_value is a string and this parameter is a list of lists then the characters of the string are tested against the appropriate index entry in the list of lists. However, if any characters fail to find a match a warning message is printed and that return value is excluded from the output (if num_returns_per_match is 1). This means that the length of the output is unpredictable.
  • num_returns_per_match (default: 1)
  • By default, search only looks for one match per element of match_value to return as a list of indices
  • If num_returns_per_match > 1, search returns a list of lists of up to num_returns_per_match index values for each element of match_value.
  • See Example 8 below.
  • If num_returns_per_match = 0, search returns a list of lists of all matching index values for each element of match_value.
  • See Example 6 below.
  • index_col_num (default: 0)
  • As noted above, when searching a list of lists, search looks only at one index position of each sublist. That index position is specified by index_col_num.
  • See Example 5 below for a simple usage example.

Search Usage Examples[编辑]

See example023.scad included with OpenSCAD for a renderable example.
Index values return as list[编辑]
Example Code Result

1

search("a","abcdabcd");

[0]

2

search("e","abcdabcd");

[]

3

search("a","abcdabcd",0);

[[0,4]]

4

data=[ ["a",1],["b",2],["c",3],["d",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",9] ];

search("a", data, num_returns_per_match=0);

[[0,4]] (see also Example 6 below)

Search on different column; return Index values[编辑]

示例5:

 data= [ ["a",1],["b",2],["c",3],["d",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",3] ];
 echo(search(3, data));    // Searches index 0, so it doesn't find anything
 echo(search(3, data, num_returns_per_match=0, index_col_num=1));

输出:

 ECHO: []
 ECHO: [2, 8]
对一组值进行搜索[编辑]

示例6: Return all matches per search vector element.

 data= [ ["a",1],["b",2],["c",3],["d",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",9] ];
 search("abc", data, num_returns_per_match=0);

Returns:

   [[0,4],[1,5],[2,6]]

示例7: Return first match per search vector element; special case return vector.

 data= [ ["a",1],["b",2],["c",3],["d",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",9] ];
 search("abc", data, num_returns_per_match=1);

Returns:

   [0,1,2]

示例8: Return first two matches per search vector element; vector of vectors.

 data= [ ["a",1],["b",2],["c",3],["d",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",9] ];
 search("abce", data, num_returns_per_match=2);

Returns:

 [[0,4],[1,5],[2,6],[8]]
Search on list of strings[编辑]

示例9:

 lTable2=[ ["cat",1],["b",2],["c",3],["dog",4],["a",5],["b",6],["c",7],["d",8],["e",9],["apple",10],["a",11] ];
 lSearch2=["b","zzz","a","c","apple","dog"];
 l2=search(lSearch2,lTable2);
 echo(str("Default list string search (",lSearch2,"): ",l2));

Returns

 ECHO: "Default list string search (["b", "zzz", "a", "c", "apple", "dog"]): [1, [], 4, 2, 9, 3]"
Getting the right results[编辑]
// workout which vectors get the results
v=[ ["O",2],["p",3],["e",9],["n",4],["S",5],["C",6],["A",7],["D",8] ];
//
echo(v[0]);					// -> ["O",2]
echo(v[1]);                                     // -> ["p",3]
echo(v[1][0],v[1][1]);                          // -> "p",3
echo(search("p",v));                            // find "p" -> [1]
echo(search("p",v)[0]);                         // -> 1
echo(search(9,v,0,1));                          // find  9  -> [2] 
echo(v[search(9,v,0,1)[0]]);                    // -> ["e",9]
echo(v[search(9,v,0,1)[0]][0]);                 // -> "e"
echo(v[search(9,v,0,1)[0]][1]);                 // -> 9
echo(v[search("p",v,1,0)[0]][1]);               // -> 3
echo(v[search("p",v,1,0)[0]][0]);               // -> "p"
echo(v[search("d",v,1,0)[0]][0]);               // "d" not found -> undef
echo(v[search("D",v,1,0)[0]][1]);               // -> 8

OpenSCAD版本[编辑]

version()与version_num()函数会返回OpenSCAD的版本号。

  • version()函数以向量的形式返回OpenSCAD的版本,例如[2011, 09, 23]
  • version_num()函数以数值的形式返回OpenSCAD的版本,例如 20110923

parent_module(n) 与 $parent_modules[编辑]

$parent_modules contains the number of modules in the instantiation stack. parent_module(i) returns the name of the module i levels above the current module in the instantiation stack. The stack is independent of where the modules are defined. It's where they're instantiated that counts. This can be used to e.g. build BOMs.

示例:

 module top() {
   children();
 }
 module middle() {
   children();
 }
 top() middle() echo(parent_module(0)); // prints "middle"
 top() middle() echo(parent_module(1)); // prints "top"

assert[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

参见

Assert evaluates a logical expression. If the expression evaluates to false, the generation of the preview/render is stopped with an error. A string representation of the expression and, if given, the message is output to the console.

参数

condition
Expression. The expression to be evaluated as check for the assertion.
message
String. Optional message to be output in case the assertion failed.

示例[编辑]

The simplest example is a simple assert(false);, e.g. in a file named assert_example1.scad.

cube();
assert(false);
sphere();
  
// ERROR: Assertion 'false' failed in file assert_example1.scad, line 2

This example has little use, but the simple assert(false); can be used in code sections that should be unreachable.

检查参数[编辑]

A useful example is checking the validity of input parameters:

module row(cnt = 3){
    // Count has to be a positive integer greater 0
    assert(cnt > 0);
    for (i = [1 : cnt]) {
        translate([i * 2, 0, 0]) sphere();
    }
}

row(0);

// ERROR: Assertion '(cnt > 0)' failed in file assert_example2.scad, line 3

Adding message[编辑]

When writing a library, it could be useful to output additional information to the user in case of an failed assertion.

module row(cnt = 3){
    assert(cnt > 0, "Count has to be a positive integer greater 0");
    for(i = [1 : cnt]) {
        translate([i * 2, 0, 0]) sphere();
    }
}

row(0);

// ERROR: Assertion '(cnt > 0)': "Count has to be a positive integer greater 0" failed in file assert_example3.scad, line 2

Using assertions in function[编辑]

Assert returns its children, so when using it in a function you can write

function f(a, b) =
    assert(a < 0, "wrong a") // assert input
    assert(b > 0, "wrong b") // assert input
    let (c = a + b) // derive a new value from input
    assert(c != 0, "wrong c") // assert derived value
    a * b; // calculate

is_undef[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

is_undef accepts one parameter. If the parameter is undef, this function returns true. If the parameter is not undef, it returns false. When checking a variable (like `is_undef(a)`), it does the variable lookup silently, meaning that is_undef(a) does not cause `WARNING: Ignoring unknown variable 'a'. `

The alternative is code like this:

if(a==undef){
    //code goes here
}

or

b = (a==undef) ? true : false;

will cause

WARNING: Ignoring unknown variable 'a'.

is_undef also works for special variables, allowing for things like this:

exploded = is_undef($exploded) ? 0 : $exploded; // 1 for exploded view

legacy support[编辑]

For older openscad version, is_undef can be emulated with

function is_undef ( a ) = (undef == a) ;

which off-course causes warning(s), but requires no changes to code relaying on is_undef().

is_list[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

echo("returning true");
echo(is_list([]));
echo(is_list([1]));
echo(is_list([1,2]));
echo(is_list([true]));
echo(is_list([1,2,[5,6],"test"]));
echo("--------");
echo("returning false");
echo(is_list(1));
echo(is_list(1/0));
echo(is_list(((1/0)/(1/0))));
echo(is_list("test"));
echo(is_list(true));
echo(is_list(false));
echo("--------");
echo("causing warnings:");
echo(is_list());
echo(is_list(1,2));

is_num[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

echo("a number is a number:");
echo(is_num(0.1));
echo(is_num(1));
echo(is_num(10));

echo("inf is a number:");
echo(is_num(+1/0)); //+inf
echo(is_num(-1/0)); //-inf

echo("nan is not a number:");
echo(is_num(0/0)); //nan
echo(is_num((1/0)/(1/0)));  //nan

echo("resulting in false:");
echo(is_num([]));
echo(is_num([1]));
echo(is_num("test"));
echo(is_num(false));
echo(is_num(undef));

is_bool[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

echo("resulting in true:");
echo(is_bool(true));
echo(is_bool(false));
echo("resulting in false:");
echo(is_bool([]));
echo(is_bool([1]));
echo(is_bool("test"));
echo(is_bool(0.1));
echo(is_bool(1));
echo(is_bool(10));
echo(is_bool(0/0)); //nan
echo(is_bool((1/0)/(1/0)));  //nan
echo(is_bool(1/0));  //inf
echo(is_bool(-1/0));  //-inf
echo(is_bool(undef));

is_string[编辑]

[请注意: 需要使用版本 2019.05]

echo("resulting in true:");
echo(is_string(""));
echo(is_string("test"));
echo("resulting in false:");
echo(is_string(0.1));
echo(is_string(1));
echo(is_string(10));
echo(is_string([]));
echo(is_string([1]));
echo(is_string(false));
echo(is_string(0/0)); //nan
echo(is_string((1/0)/(1/0)));  //nan
echo(is_string(1/0));  //inf
echo(is_string(-1/0));  //-inf
echo(is_string(undef));