人类生理学/怀孕和生育

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Introduction[编辑]

Fertilization[编辑]

Pre-embryonic Period[编辑]

Implantation[编辑]

Ectoderm[编辑]

Mesoderm[编辑]

Endoderm[编辑]

Formation of Placenta[编辑]

Amniotic Fluid[编辑]

Endocrine Function of the Placenta[编辑]

Developing Baby[编辑]

Overview of Developmental Milestones[编辑]

Embryonic Development at Specific Stages[编辑]

First trimester[编辑]

Second Trimester[编辑]

Third Trimester[编辑]

Umbilical Cord[编辑]

Umbilical Abnormalities[编辑]

Pregnancy from the mother's perspective[编辑]

Changing Body[编辑]

First Trimester[编辑]

Second Trimester[编辑]

Third Trimester[编辑]

Prenatal Care[编辑]

Labor and Birth[编辑]

Delivery Options[编辑]

Postpartum care[编辑]

Risks in Pregnancy[编辑]

Miscarriage[编辑]

Bleeding During Pregnancy[编辑]

Blood Conditions[编辑]

Other Abnormalities[编辑]

Staying Healthy[编辑]

In vitro Fertilization and Artificial Implantation[编辑]

Embryonic stem cells[编辑]

Pregnancy and Lactation[编辑]

Postpartum Depression[编辑]

Testing Your Knowledge[编辑]

词汇表[编辑]

胎盘早剥(Abruption)
Premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the womb
羊膜(Amnion)
An embryonic membrane that encircles a developing fetus and contains amniotic fluid.
羊膜穿刺术(Amniocentesis)
A procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is removed from around the fetus
羊水(Amniotic fluid)
The fluid surrounding the fetus
人工破膜(Amniotomy)
(artificial rupture of membranes, ARM) Breaking the membranes using a special plastic hook
贫血(Anemia)
Lack of hemoglobin in red blood cells, due to iron deficiency or disease
产前出血(Antepartum Hemorrhage)
(APH) Vaginal bleeding that happens after 24 weeks of pregnancy and before delivery
臀位(Breech)
The baby is lying bottom down in the womb
腹腔注射(Celiac sprue)
Nutrient absorption impairment which is improved when gluten is removed form the diet. Characteristic mucosal lesion of the small intestine.
头位(Cephalic)
The baby is lying head down in the womb
绒毛膜(Chorion)
The embryonic membrane that forms the outermost covering around the developing fetus.
绒毛取样术(Chorion Villus Sampling,CVS)
A method for sampling placental tissue for genetic or chromosome studies.
初乳(Colostrum)
the fluid that is made late in pregnancy and the first few days postpartum in the breast that contains immunologic substances and essential nutrients.
卵裂(Cleavage)
The early successive divisions of embryonic cells into smaller and smaller cells.
纤毛(Cilia)
The fine hairs that line the fallopian tubes'
脐带穿剌术(Cordocentesis)
The procedure for taking blood from the fetal umbilical cord via a needle through the mother’s abdomen
交配(Copulation)
is the procreative act of a man's erect penis is inserted into a woman's vagina. At climax, semen is ejaculated from the penis at the cervix of the uterus. Sperm then propel themselves into the uterine tubes where fertilization may occur if an egg is present.
克隆氏症(Crohn's disease)
Skip lesions in the colon and is a malabsorptive disease.
膀胱炎(Cystitis)
膀胱的发炎
异卵双胞胎(Dizygous)
Not identical (fraternal) twins
Doppler
A form of ultrasound used specially to investigate blood flow in the placenta or in the fetus
唐氏症(Down Syndrome)
(Trisomy 21) A disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 in the cells
异位妊娠(Ectopic Pregnancy)
胚胎在子宫以外部位著床的妊娠。
水肿(Edema)
Swelling of the fingers, legs, toes, and face.
胚胎(Embryo)
The medical term for the baby from conception to about six weeks
Engagement
The process in which the head of the baby moves down from high in the mother's abdomen and settles deeper into her pelvis in preparation for birth. This can happen any time between 36 weeks and labor.
硬膜外麻醉(Epidural Anesthesia)
A method of numbing the nerves of the lower spinal cord to ensure a pain-free labor
会阴切开术(Episiotomy)
A cut of the perineum and vagina performed to make the delivery easier
外部胎儿监护仪(External Fetal Monitor)
An electronic monitor used to record the fetal heartbeat and mother’s contractions
输卵管(Fallopian Tubes)
(uterine tubes) Two tubular structures (one on each side of the womb) leading from the ovaries to the uterus
受精(Fertilization)
The union of an egg cell and a sperm cell is present wherein 23 chromosomes from each parent come together to form a zygote. After sperm penetrates, the ovum undergoes a chemical change to prevent other sperm from entering. Multiple births can occur from complete division of the conceptus during early cleavage or from fertilization of multiple ova. Birth control techniques are designed to prevent ovulation or to prevent fertilization by barriers, that keep sperm and ova separated.
胎儿(Fetus)
Medical term for the baby from six weeks after conception until birth
产钳(Forceps)
Metal instruments that fit on either side of the baby's head and are used to help deliver the baby
宫底(Fundus)
子宫的顶部
胚层(Germ layer)
Layers of cells within an embryo that form the body organs during development.
神经胶质细胞(Glial Cells,neuroglia; glia)
Non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glia are estimated to outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1.

Glial cells provide support and protection for neurons, the other main type of cell in the central nervous system. They are thus known as the "glue" of the nervous system. The four main functions of glial cells are to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.

Hemoglobin
(Hb)The oxygen carrying constituent of red blood cells
引产(Induction of labor,IOL)
the procedure for initiating labor artificially
宫内死胎(In utero death,IUD)
the death of the unborn fetus after 24 weeks
体外受精(In vitro fertilization,IVF)
a method of assisted conception in which fertilization occurs outside the mother's and the embryo is replaced in the womb
胎毛(Lanugo)
fine hair that covers the fetus in the womb
恶露(Lochia)
分娩后的子宫阴道分泌物
乳腺炎(Mastitis)
inflammation of the breast most frequently in lactation.
新生儿(Neonatal)
baby less than 28 days old
颈部扫描(Nuchal scan)
special ultrasound scan that gives an estimate of the risk of Down syndrome
卵母细胞(Oocyte)
one egg that is released from the ovary at each ovulation
胎盘(Placenta)
The structure by which an unborn child is attached to it's mother's uterine wall and through which it is nourished.
产后(Postnatal)
After birth
产前(Prenatal)
Before birth
胎动(Quickening)
The process that occurs between the seventeenth and twentieth weeks of fetal development, the fetus's leg bones achieve their final relative proportions. In this process the muscles contract, causing movement at the fetus's sinovial joints. The joint movement enhances the nutrition of the articular cartilage and prevents the fusion of connective tissues within the joint. It also promotes bone hardening. It is this stage, where the fetus's bones become more developed and harder, that the mother begins to notice fetal movement.
基本(Rudimentary)
Basic; minimal; with less than, or only the minimum, necessary
鹅口疮(Thrush)
Creamy white flakes on a red papillae on tongue and tongue may be enlarged.
脐带(Umbilical cord)
The cord like structures that connects the fetus to the placenta.
合子(Zygote)
A cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm; a fertilized egg cell.

参考资料[编辑]