人類生理學/胃腸系統

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Layers of the GI Tract[編輯]

Accessory Organs[編輯]

消化系統[編輯]

食道(Esophagus)[編輯]

胃(Stomach)[編輯]

小腸[編輯]

大腸[編輯]

Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder[編輯]

肛門(Anus)[編輯]

Conditions Affecting the Esophagus[編輯]

Conditions Affecting the Stomach and Intestines[編輯]

Disorders of the Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder[編輯]

Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions[編輯]

Bleeding in the Gastrointestinal tract[編輯]

結腸鏡檢查(Colonoscopy)[編輯]

案例研究[編輯]

詞彙表[編輯]

Amebiasis 
An inflammation if the intestines caused by infestation with Entameba histolytica (a type of ameba) and characterized by frequent loose stools flecked with blood and mucus
Amylase 
An enzyme produces in the pancreas and salivary glands that help in the digestions of starches.
Bile 
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Also called gall.
Biotin 
Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs Cycle. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. It is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails.
B12 
A vitamin important for the normal formation of red blood cells and the health of the nerve tissues. Undetected and untreated B12 deficiency can lead to anemia and permanent nerve and brain damage
Candida Albicans 
Found in animals and in man. Has been isolated from the skin and mucosa of man, but has also been recovered from leaves, flowers, water, and soil. Reported to be allergenic. A common cause of superficial infection, oral and vaginal infection, sepsis, and disseminated disease. Cells from the organism are usually not airborne and are considered to be normal component of the flora of the mouth and other mucous membranes on the body.
Chemical digestion
Is a chemical breakdown of food when being in the mouth (oral cavity). Is the digestive secretions of saliva that moistens food and introduces gastric juices and enzymes that are produced in the stimulation to certain macronutrients, such as, carbohydrates. In this, the mouth saliva carries an enzyme called amylase for breaking down carbohydrates.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) 
Cholecystokinin (also called pancreozymin), this is a hormone in the small intestinal cells (intestinal mucosa) that is produced in response to food. This hormone regulates the release of secretions of many organs that aid digestion, such as, bicarbonate from the pancreas to reduce the acidity of digestive juices like the chyme that enters the small intestine form the stomach that contains hydrochloric acid (HCL).
Chylomicrons 
The lipoproteins first formed after absorption of lipids form food.
Chyme 
The thick semi fluid mass of partly digested food that is passed from the stomach to the duodenum.
Crohn's Disease 
Described as skip lessions in the large and small bowel it is a malabsorption disorder that can affect the gastrointestinal tract for the mouth to the anus.
Deamination
When an amino acid group breaks off an amino acid that makes a molecule of ammonia and keto acid.
Emulsifier 
A mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances.
Gastrin
The stomach mucosa secretes a hormone gastrin that increases the release of gastric juices.
GI tract 
Gastrointestinal Tract, The tube that extends from the mouth to the anus in which the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food.
Hydrochloric 
The chemical substance hydrochloric acid is the water-based solution of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. It is a strong acid, the major component of stomach acid and of wide industrial use.
Lactobacillus Acidophilus 
Important resident inhabitant of the human small and large intestines, mouth, and vagina. Secretes natural antibiotic substances which strengthen the body against various disease-causing microbes
Leaky gut syndrome 
Abnormal level of intestinal permeability
Lingual lipase 
An enzyme produced only in infancy to aid digestion of long-chain fatty acids.
Lipase 
An enzyme produced by microorganisms that split the fat molecules into fatty acids which create flavor
Mechanical digestion
The crushing of the teeth and rhythms made by the movement of the tongue, the teeth aid in tearing and pulverizing food, while the tongue helps with peristalsis (movement), of food down the esophagus.
Micelles 
A product of lipids and bile assist in lipid absorption.
Microvilli 
On the villi in the small intestine is mivrovilli, these projections called brush border microvilli secrete specific enzymes for disaccharide hydrolysis, these further aid the absorption of the carbohydrate by yielding a monosaccharide that then can go through portal circulation to liver circulation to be further processed into immediate use for energy or glycogen storage.
Peristalsis 
The wavelike muscular contractions of the intestine or other tubular structure that propel the contents onward by alternate contraction and relaxation.
Pharynx 
Proliferation 
The process of reproduction or division of cells
Proteases 
Protein enzyme
Rennin 
Only produced during infancy and is a gastric protease and functions with calcium to clot with milk proteins casein, to slow the movement of milk so that digestion is prolonged.
Serotonin 
chemical messenger in the brain that affects emotions, behavior, and thought
Synthesize 
To create something, such as chemicals in the body, from simpler, raw materials
Ulcerative Colitis 
Villi 
A minute projection arising from a mucous membrane, especially one of the vascular projections of the small intestine.
Vitamin K 
A substance that promotes the clotting of blood

Case Study Answer Bob has diverticulitis. The doctor was afraid that if he had another bad infection that scar tissue would eventually block his colon completely and burst, which would necessitate a colostomy. Bob ended up having to have surgery to remove the damaged part of his colon. The doctor removed almost 18 inches of Bob's large intestine. Bob is doing fine now and most importantly, he can now eat his favorite food - nuts! Note: Sometimes a diet rich in fiber can help you avoid this dreaded problem. Sometimes, like in Bob's case, the predisposition to have this problem runs in the family. All of his siblings and his father suffered from this same ailment. Stress is another factor that can exacerbate this disease. So.. don't worry, be happy and eat fiber!

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