# LibreOffice 3.4入門/Calc入門

## Calc是什麼？

Calc is the spreadsheet component of LibreOffice. You can enter data (usually numerical) in a spreadsheet and then manipulate this data to produce certain results.
Calc是LibreOffice的電子表格軟體。你可以在電子表格里輸入數據（通常為數字），然後操作這個數據產生某些結果。

Alternatively you can enter data and then use Calc in a 『What if...』 manner by changing some of the data and observing the results without having to retype the entire spreadsheet. 此外，修改部分數據時你可以使用「What if...」方式來查看結果，而不必通過重新輸入整個電子表格。

Other features provided by Calc include:

Calc其他特點包括：

• Functions, which can be used to create formulas to perform complex calculations on data
• Database functions, to arrange, store, and filter data
• Dynamic charts; a wide range of 2D and 3D charts
• Macros, for recording and executing repetitive tasks
• Ability to open, edit, and save Microsoft Excel spreadsheets
• Import and export of spreadsheets in multiple formats, including HTML, CSV, PDF, and PostScript
```* 函数：可以提供公式及函数对数据进行复杂的运算。
* 数据库函数：排列、储存、过滤数据。
* 动态的图表：含有多种2D或者3D图表。
* 宏：记录及完成重复的任务
* 可以打开，编辑及保存 Microsoft Excel 电子表格
* 以多种格式导入和导出电子表格文件，包括 HTML、CSV、PDF和PostScript等。

```
 Note If you want to use macros written in Microsoft Excel using the VBA macro code in LibreOffice, you must first edit the code in the LibreOffice Basic IDE editor. See Chapter 13, Getting Started with Macros, in this book and Chapter 12 in the Calc Guide.
 提示 如果您想在LibreOffice使用Microsoft Excel的VBA宏，您必須首先在LibreOffice Basic IDE編輯器對代碼進行的編輯。詳情，請參見第13章「宏的使用入門」，以及第12章「Calc指南」。

## 電子表格、工作表與單元格

Calc works with documents called spreadsheets. Spreadsheets consist of a number of individual sheets, each sheet containing cells arranged in rows and columns. A particular cell is identified by its row number and column letter.

Cells hold the individual elements—text, numbers, formulas, and so on—that make up the data to display and manipulate. 單元格里保存著由文本、數值、公式等組成的單個數據，這些數據可以被顯示和操作。

Each spreadsheet can have many sheets, and each sheet can have many individual cells. In Calc 3.3, each sheet can have a maximum of 1,048,576 rows and 1024 columns.

## Calc的局部主窗口界面

Parts of the main Calc window

When Calc is started, the main window looks similar to Figure 91.

Calc啟動後，其主窗口界面如圖91所示。

### 標題欄

Title bar

The Title bar, located at the top, shows the name of the current spreadsheet. When the spreadsheet is newly created, its name is Untitled X, where X is a number. When you save a spreadsheet for the first time, you are prompted to enter a name of your choice.

### 菜單欄

Under the Title bar is the Menu bar. When you choose one of the menus, a submenu appears with other options. You can modify the Menu bar, as discussed in Chapter 14, Customizing LibreOffice.

### 工具欄

Toolbars

Three toolbars are located under the Menu bar by default: the Standard to toolbar, the Formatting toolbar, and the Formula Bar.

The icons (buttons) on these toolbars provide a wide range of common commands and functions. You can also modify these toolbars, as discussed in Chapter 14, Customizing LibreOffice.

In the Formatting toolbar, the three boxes on the left are the Apply Style, Font Name, and Font Size lists. They show the current setting for the selected cell or area. (The Apply Style list may not be visible by default.) Click the down-arrow to the right of each box to open the list.

### 公式欄

Formula bar

On the left hand side of the Formula bar is a small text box, called the Name Box, with a letter and number combination in it, such as D7. This combination, called the cell reference, is the column letter and row number of the selected cell.

To the right of the Name box are the the Function Wizard, Sum, and Function buttons.

Clicking the Function Wizard button opens a dialog from which you can search through a list of available functions. This can be very useful because it also shows how the functions are formatted.

Figure 93. Formula bar

In a spreadsheet the term function covers much more than just mathematical functions. See Chapter 7 in the Using Formulas and Functions for more details.

Clicking the Sum button inserts a formula into the current cell that totals the numbers in the cells above the current cell. If there are no numbers above the current cell, then the cells to the left are placed in the Sum formula.

Clicking the Function button inserts an equals (=) sign into the selected cell and the Input line, enabling the cell to accept a formula.

When you enter new data into a cell, the Sum and Equals buttons change to Cancel and Accept buttons [[Image:]].

The contents of the current cell (data, formula, or function) are displayed in the Input line, which forms the remainder of the Formula Bar. You can edit the contents of the current cell on the Input line or in the cell itself. To edit on the Input line, click in the line, then type your changes. To edit within the current cell, just double-click the cell.

### 單個單元格

The main section of the screen displays the cells in the form of a grid, with each cell being at the intersection of a column and a row.

At the top of the columns and at the left end of the rows are a series of gray boxes containing letters and numbers. These are the column and row headers. The columns start at A and go on to the right, and the rows start at 1 and go down.

These column and row headers form the cell references that appear in the Name Box on the Formula Bar (Figure 93). You can turn these headers off by selecting View > Column & Row Headers.

### 工作表標籤

Sheet tabs

At the bottom of the grid of cells are the sheet tabs. These tabs enable access to each individual sheet, with the visible (active) sheet having a white tab. You can choose colors for the different sheet tabs by right-clicking the space, choosing Tab Color, and choosing a color from the palette.

Clicking on another sheet tab displays that sheet, and its tab turns white. You can also select multiple sheet tabs at once by holding down the Control key while you click the names.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 94: Choosing a tab color]]

### 狀態欄

Status bar

At the very bottom of the Calc window is the status bar, which provides information about the spreadsheet and convenient ways to quickly change some of its features. Most of the fields are similar to those in other components of LibreOffice; see Chapter 1, Introducing LibreOffice, in this book and Chapter 1, Introducing Calc, in the Calc Guide.

## 打開和保存CSV文件

Opening and saving CSV files

Chapter 1, Introducing LibreOffice, includes instructions on starting new Calc documents, opening existing documents, and saving documents.

A special case for Calc is opening and saving comma-separated-values (CSV) files, which are text files that contain the cell contents of a single sheet. Each line in a CSV file represents a row in a spreadsheet. Commas, semicolons, or other characters are used to separate the cells. Text is entered in quotation marks, numbers are entered without quotation marks.

Calc還有一個特殊的功能，那就是還可以打開並保存CSV文件，CSV文件是包含單獨工作表的單元格內容的純文本格式文件。CSV文件里的每一行代表電子表格里的行。它用逗號，分號或者其他的字符用來分開單元格，輸入文本（字符串）時要用引號（英文的""）標記，輸入數值時則不要引號標記。

### 打開一個CSV文件

Opening a CSV file

To open a CSV file in Calc:

```* 第一步：选择“文件”-“打开”。
* 第二步：找到你想打开的CSV文件的位置。
* 第三步：如果文件有*.csv后缀，选择它并单击“打开”。
* 第四步：如果文件有其他的后缀（例如：*,txt），在文件格式框里选择“文本CSV（*.csv;*txt;*xls）”，你可以滚动以便找到它。然后单击 “打开”。
* 第五步在Text导入对话框（图97），选择“分隔选项”把文件中的文本分隔成数据列（字段）。您也可以在对话框底部预览导入数据的布局。
* 第六步：单击确定来打开文件
```
1. Choose File > Open.
2. Locate the CSV file that you want to open.
3. If the file has a *.csv extension, select the file and click Open.
4. If the file has another extension (for example, *.txt), select the file, select Text CSV (*csv;*txt;*xls) in the File type box (you will have to scroll down some distance to find it) and then click Open.
5. On the Text Import dialog (Figure 97), select the Separator options to divide the text in the file into columns.
You can preview the layout of the imported data at the bottom of the dialog.

Right-click a column in the preview to set the format or to hide the column.
If the CSV file uses a text delimiter character that is not in the Text delimiter list, click in the Text delimiter box, and type the character.

1. Click OK to open the file.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 97: Text Import dialog, with Comma (,) selected as the separator and double quotation mark (「) as the text delimiter.]]

### 另存為CSV文件

Saving as a CSV file

To save a spreadsheet as a comma separate value (CSV) file:

1. Choose File > Save As.
2. In the File name box, type a name for the file.
3. In the File type list, select Text CSV (.csv) and click Save.
• 第一步：選擇菜單「文件 > 另存為」。
• 第二步：在「文件名」輸入框裡，輸入文件名。
• 第三步：在「文件類型」列表中，選擇「Text CSV(.csv)」，然後單擊「保存」

You may see the message box shown below. Click Keep Current Format.

[[Image:]]
1. In the Export text file dialog, select the options you want and then click OK.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 98: Choosing options when exporting to Text CSV]]

## 操作電子表格文件

Calc provides many ways to navigate within a spreadsheet from cell to cell and sheet to sheet. You can generally use the method you prefer.

Calc提供了多種方式來操作電子表格文件，不管是從單元格到單元格還是從工作表到工作表的操作，您可以選擇您習慣的操作方式。

### 跳轉到指定的單元格

Going to a particular cell

Using the mouse

```把光标放到该单元格上方，然后单击。
```

Place the mouse pointer over the cell and click.

Using a cell reference

Click on the little inverted black triangle just to the right of the Name Box (Figure 93). The existing cell reference will be highlighted. Type the cell reference of the cell you want to go to and press Enter. Or just click into the Name box, backspace over the existing cell reference and type in the cell reference you want and press Enter.

Using the Navigator

To open the Navigator, click its icon [[Image:]] on the Standard toolbar, or press F5, or choose View > Navigator on the Menu bar, or double-click on the Sheet Sequence Number [[Image:]] in the Status Bar. Type the cell reference into the top two fields, labeled Column and Row, and press Enter. In Figure 99 the Navigator would select cell A7.

You can dock the Navigator to either side of the main Calc window or leave it floating. (To dock or float the Navigator, hold down the Control key and double-click in an empty area near the icons in the Navigator dialog.)

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 99: The Navigator in Calc]]

The Navigator displays lists of all the objects in a document, grouped into categories. If an indicator (plus sign or arrow) appears next to a category, at least one object of this kind exists. To open a category and see the list of items, click on the indicator.

「導航」以列表形式顯示了一個文檔中的所有對象，並把它們分成不同類別。如果某個類別旁邊有一個指示器（「+」或箭頭），那麼該類別下就存在多個對象。若要打開某個類別並查看其中的對象，單擊該指示器。

To hide the list of categories and show only the icons at the top, click the Contents icon [[Image:]]. Click this icon again to show the list.

### 單元格與單元格之間的移動操作

Moving from cell to cell
In the spreadsheet, one cell normally has a black border. This black border indicates where the focus is (see Figure 100). If a group of cells is selected, they are highlighted in a light blue color, with the focus cell having a black border.

Using the mouse

To move the focus using the mouse, simply move the mouse pointer to the cell where you want the focus to be and click the left mouse button. This changes the focus to the new cell. This method is most useful when the two cells are a large distance apart.

```若要使用鼠标来移动单元格位置，只要移动鼠标指针到您要选取的单元格，然后再单击鼠标，这时单元格位置就变成另一个单元格。

```
[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 100. (Left) One selected cell and (right) a group of selected cells]]

Using the Tab and Enter keys

• By default, pressing Enter or Shift+Enter moves the focus down or up, respectively.
• Pressing Tab or Shift+Tab moves the focus to the right or to the left, respectively.

```*  Calc默认使用“Enter”或“Shift+Enter”键分别移动单元格位置向下或向上。
*  Calc默认使用“Tab”或“Shift+Tab”键分别移动单元格位置向右或向左。
```

Using the arrow keys

Pressing the arrow keys on the keyboard moves the focus in the direction of the arrows.

```按键盘上的方向键来移动单元格位置。
```

Using Home, End, Page Up and Page Down

• Home moves the focus to the start of a row.
• End moves the focus to the column furthest to the right that contains data.
• Page Down moves the display down one complete screen and Page Up moves the display up one complete screen.
• Combinations of Control and Alt with Home, End, Page Down, Page Up, and the cursor keys move the focus of the current cell in other ways. See the Help or Appendix A, Keyboard Shortcuts, in the Calc Guide for details.

```* “Home”将会把单元格位置移到该行的开头
* “End”将会把单元格位置移到右边含有数据的最后一列
* “Page Down”把屏幕移到下一个完整页，"Page Up"把屏幕移到上一个完整页。
* Ctrl、Alt键，组合Home, End, Page Down, Page Up及方向键以移动单元格位置的其他方法，请参考快捷键列表，详情请参见Calc入门。
```
 Tip Use one of the four Alt+Arrow key combinations to resize a cell.
 提示 使用「Alt+方向鍵」的來調整單元格大小。

#### 自定義「Enter」鍵功能

You can customize the direction in which the Enter key moves the focus, by selecting Tools > Options > LibreOffice Calc > General.

The four choices for the direction of the Enter key are shown on the right hand side of Figure 101. It can move the focus down, right, up, or left. Depending on the file being used or on the type of data being entered, setting a different direction can be useful.

The Enter key can also be used to switch into and out of editing mode. Use the first two options under Input settings in Figure 101 to change the Enter key settings.

Enter」也可以設置為編輯模式切換鍵，只要使用「輸入設置」下前兩個選項（見圖101）就能修改「Enter」鍵的相關設置。

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 101: Customizing the effect of the Enter key]]

### 工作表之間的移動操作

Moving from sheet to sheet
Each sheet in a spreadsheet is independent of the others, though they can be linked with references from one sheet to another. There are three ways to navigate between different sheets in a spreadsheet.

Using the Navigator

When the Navigator is open (Figure 99), double-clicking on any of the listed sheets selects the sheet.

```当“导航”打开时（见图99），您可以双击工作表列表中的任意一个来选取工作表。
```

Using the keyboard

Pressing Control+Page Down moves one sheet to the right and pressing Control+Page Up moves one sheet to the left.

```* 按“Ctrl+Page Down”键移动一个工作表到右边另一个；
* 按“Ctrl+Page Up”键移动一个工作表到左边另一个；
```

Using the mouse

Clicking on one of the sheet tabs at the bottom of the spreadsheet selects that sheet.

```在电子表格文件里，单击底部的任意一种工作表标签来选取工作表。
```

If you have a lot of sheets, then some of the sheet tabs may be hidden behind the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the screen. If this is the case, then the four buttons at the left of the sheet tabs can move the tabs into view. Figure 102 shows how to do this.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 102. Sheet tab arrows]]

Notice that the sheets here are not numbered in order. Sheet numbering is arbitrary; you can name a sheet as you wish. 註：工作表之間沒有編號順序的，是任意排列的，您可以任意命名工作表的名稱。

 Note The sheet tab arrows that appear in Figure 102 only appear if you have some sheet tabs that are hidden by the horizontal scrollbar. Otherwise, they will appear faded as in Figure 91.
 備註 只有在您有一些工作表標籤被隱藏到了水平滾動條之後時，工作表標籤箭頭才會可用（見圖102）；否則，它們是灰色的即不可用（見圖91）。

## 在工作表或電子表格中，如何選取項目

Selecting items in a sheet or spreadsheet

### 如何選取單元格

Selecting cells

Cells can be selected in a variety of combinations and quantities.

Single cell

Left-click in the cell. The result will look like the left side of Figure 100. You can verify your selection by looking in the Name box.

```单击（左击）该单元格即可，其结果将使其外观如图100左边所示，然后您可以在名称框里核实您的选取。
```

Range of contiguous cells

A range of cells can be selected using the keyboard or the mouse.

To select a range of cells by dragging the mouse:

1. Click in a cell.
2. Press and hold down the left mouse button.
3. Move the mouse around the screen.
4. Once the desired block of cells is highlighted, release the left mouse button.

```*  第一步：单击一个单元格；
*  第二步：按住鼠标左键不放；
*  第三步：在屏幕上移动鼠标；
*  第四步：当您需要的单元格区域高亮显示时，释放鼠标左键。
```

To select a range of cells without dragging the mouse:

1. Click in the cell which is to be one corner of the range of cells.
2. Move the mouse to the opposite corner of the range of cells.
3. Hold down the Shift key and click.

```*  第一步：单击您要选取的单元格区域最边角上的单元格。
*  第二步：移动鼠标到另一个对角上单元格；
*  第三步：按住“Shift”键，然后单击；
```

To select a range of cells without using the mouse:

1. Select the cell that will be one of the corners in the range of cells.
2. While holding down the Shift key, use the cursor arrows to select the rest of the range.

```*  第一步：选中您要选取的单元格区域最边角上的单元格。
*  第二步：同时按住“Shift”，使用方向键来选择或重置单元格区域；
```

The result of any of these methods looks like the right side of Figure 100.

 Tip You can also directly select a range of cells using the Name box. Click into the Name Box as described in 「Using a cell reference」 on page 111. To select a range of cells, enter the cell reference for the upper left-hand cell, followed by a colon (:), and then the lower right-hand cell reference. For example, to select the range that would go from A3 to C6, you would enter A3:C6.
 提示 您還可以直接通過名稱框來選取連續的單元格區域。使用上節「操作電子表格文件/使用單元格引用」所述方法， 單擊進入名稱框。若要選擇連續的單元格區域，請先輸入該區域左上的單元格引用，再接上「:」然後再輸入該區域右下角的引用。例如，要選擇A3至C6之間的單元格區域，請輸入「A3:C6」

Range of non-contiguous cells

1. Select the cell or range of cells using one of the methods above.
2. Move the mouse pointer to the start of the next range or single cell.
3. Hold down the Control key and click or click-and-drag to select a range.
4. Repeat as necessary.

• 第一步：使用上述任意一種方法選取某個單元格或單元格區域。
• 第二步：把滑鼠移到下一個要選取單元格或單元格區域。
• 第三步：按住「Ctrl」鍵不放，然後單擊選取下一個要選取的單元格，或拖動選取下一個要選取的單元格區域
• 第四步：重複上述步驟，直到完成您的所有選取為止。

### 選取列與行

Selecting columns and rows Entire columns and rows can be selected very quickly in LibreOffice.

Single column or row

To select a single column, click on the column identifier letter (see Figure 91).

To select a single row, click on the row identifier number.

'選取單行或單列

• 若要選擇單列，請單擊列上面的標記字母（見圖91）。
• 若要選擇單行，請單擊行左端的標記數字。

Multiple columns or rows

```选取多列或多行
```

• 第一步：單擊連續的列（行）中的第一列（行）
第二步：按住「Shift」鍵不放
第三步：單擊最後一列（行）。

To select multiple columns or rows that are contiguous:

1. Click on the first column or row in the group.
2. Hold down the Shift key.
3. Click the last column or row in the group.

To select multiple columns or rows that are not contiguous:

• 第一步：單擊第一個要選取的列（行）
第二步：按住「Ctrl」鍵不放
第三步：按住「Ctrl」鍵，使用滑鼠選取其他要選擇的列（行）。
1. Click on the first column or row in the group.
2. Hold down the Control key.
3. Click on all of the subsequent columns or rows while holding down the Control key.

Entire sheet

To select the entire sheet, click on the small box between the A column header and the 1 row header.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 103. Select All box]]

You can also press Control+A to select the entire sheet.

### 選擇工作表

Selecting sheets

You can select either one or multiple sheets. It can be advantageous to select multiple sheets at times when you want to make changes to many sheets at once.

Single sheet

Click on the sheet tab for the sheet you want to select. The active sheet becomes white (see Figure 104).

Multiple contiguous sheets

To select multiple contiguous sheets:

1. Click on the sheet tab for the first desired sheet.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the sheet tab for the last desired sheet.
3. Hold down the Shift key and click on the sheet tab.

• 第一步：單擊您要選擇第一個工作表標籤
第二步：把光標移到最後一個要選擇的工作表標籤之上。
第三步：同時按住「Shift」，然後單擊最後一個要選擇的工作表標籤。

All the tabs between these two sheets will turn white. Any actions that you perform will now affect all highlighted sheets.

Multiple non-contiguous sheets

To select multiple non-contiguous sheets:

1. Click on the sheet tab for the first sheet.
2. Move the mouse pointer over the second sheet tab.
3. Hold down the Control key and click on the sheet tab.
4. Repeat as necessary.

• 第一步：單擊第一個要選擇的工作表標籤
第二步：把光標移到下一個要選擇的工作表標籤之上
第三步：同時按住「Ctrl」鍵，然後單擊該標籤。
第四步：重複第二步、第三步多次，直到選擇到所有您要的工作表。

The selected tabs will turn white. Any actions that you perform will now affect all highlighted sheets.

All sheets

Right-click any one of the sheet tabs and choose Select All Sheets from the pop-up menu.

## 如何操作工作表中的「行與列」

Working with columns and rows

### 「行與列」的插入

Inserting columns and rows

Columns and rows can be inserted individually or in groups.

 Note When you insert a single new column, it is inserted to the left of the highlighted column. When you insert a single new row, it is inserted above the highlighted row. 當您插入新的一列時，該列就會放到高亮顯示（即當前選中）列的左邊。當您插入新的一行時，該行會被插入當前選中（高亮顯示）的行的上邊。 Cells in the new columns or rows are formatted like the corresponding cells in the column or row before (or to the left of) which the new column or row is inserted.插入的列和行的格式和相應列和行的單元格一致。

Single column or row

1. Select the cell, column or row where you want the new column or row inserted.
2. Choose either Insert > Columns or Insert > Rows.
• 第一步：選擇你想插入列或行的位置（單元格、列、行等）。
第二步：從主菜單上，選擇 插入 > 列 插入 > 行

Using the mouse:

1. Select the cell, column or row where you want the new column or row inserted.
2. Right-click the header of the column or row.
3. Choose Insert Rows or Insert Columns.
• 第一步：選擇你想插入列或行的位置（單元格、列、行等）。
第二步：在該位置(某行或某列的開頭)上，單擊滑鼠。
第三步：選擇插入行 插入列

Multiple columns or rows

「多列或多行」的插入

Multiple columns or rows can be inserted at once rather than inserting them one at a time.

1. Highlight the required number of columns or rows by holding down the left mouse button on the first one and then dragging across the required number of identifiers.
2. Proceed as for inserting a single column or row above. The specified number of rows/columns will be inserted above or to the left of the first one you selected.
• 第一步：在要選擇的首行（列）上按住滑鼠不放，然後拖動框選到所有需要的行（列），當選中後，它們都會高亮顯示。
第二步：使用上節有關「插入單行（列）」操作來完成插入，這時選定的行（列）就會插入到當前選中行的上邊（列的左邊）。

### 「行與列」的刪除

Deleting columns and rows

Columns and rows can be deleted individually or in groups. 您可以刪除單行或單列，多行或多列。

Single column or row

A single column or row can only be deleted by using the mouse:

1. Select the column or row to be deleted.
2. Right-click on the column or row header.
3. Select Delete Columns or Delete Rows from the pop-up menu.
• 第一步：用滑鼠選擇行徑需要刪除的行（列）。
第二步：在該行（列）標題上右擊滑鼠
第三步：在彈出的菜單上選擇刪除列刪除行

Multiple columns or rows

Multiple columns or rows can be deleted at once rather than deleting them one at a time.

1. Highlight the required number of columns or rows by holding down the left mouse button on the first one and then dragging across the required number of identifiers.
2. Proceed as for deleting a single column or row above.

## 工作表的操作

Working with sheets

Like any other Calc element, sheets can be inserted, copied, moved, deleted, and renamed.

### 插入新的工作表

Inserting new sheets

There are several ways to insert a new sheet. The fastest method is to click on the Add Sheet button [[Image:]] to the right of the sheet tabs. If you cannot see this button, drag the separator bar next to the tabs towards the right to make space for it. This button inserts one new sheet at that point, without opening the Insert Sheet dialog.

。如果你不能看見這個按鈕，向右拖動分隔條提供空間讓其顯示。這個按鈕每點一次新建一個工作表，而不用打開插入工作表對話框。

Use one of the other methods to insert more than one sheet, to rename the sheet at the same time, or to insert the sheet somewhere else in the sequence. The first step for these methods is to select the sheet that the new sheet will be inserted next to. Then use any of the following options.

• Choose Insert > Sheet from the menu bar.
• Right-click on a sheet tab and choose Insert Sheet.
• Click in an empty space at the end of the line of sheet tabs.
1. 從菜單欄上選擇插入 > 工作表
2. 在工作表標號上右擊然後選擇插入工作表
3. 在工作表標籤末尾空白處點擊滑鼠。
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 104. Creating a new sheet]]

Each method will open the Insert Sheet dialog (Figure 105). Here you can select whether the new sheet is to go before or after the selected sheet and how many sheets you want to insert. If you are inserting only one sheet, there is the opportunity to give the sheet a name.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 105. Insert Sheet dialog]]

### 移動和複製工作表

Moving and copying sheets

You can move or copy sheets within the same spreadsheet by using either the mouse (drag and drop) or a dialog. Drag and drop does not work if you wish to move or copy a sheet to a different spreadsheet; instead, you need to use the dialog.

#### 辦法一：通過滑鼠操作工作表

Using the mouse

To move a sheet to a different position within the same spreadsheet, click on the sheet tab and drag it left or right. Two little triangles indicate where the sheet will be dropped (see Figure 106). The mouse pointer (not shown in the illustration) may change to include an indicator; the indicator symbol varies with your operating system.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 106: Dragging a sheet to move it]]

To copy a sheet within the same spreadsheet, hold down the Control key (Option key on Mac) while you click on the sheet tab and drag it. The mouse pointer may change to include a plus sign or other indicator; the symbol varies with your operating system.

#### 辦法二：使用對話框

Using a dialog

The Move/Copy dialog provides the opportunity to specify exactly where you want the sheet to go (in the same or a different document, and what its name will be, at the same time as moving or copying occurs.

「移動或複製工作表」對話框裡提供了「移動或複製工作表「到指定位置的選項，包括當前文檔或另一個文檔，以及」移動或複製「後該工作表的名稱。

 Note When moving or copying sheets between different spreadsheets, be sure that both documents are open.
 注意 在兩個不同的文檔之間進行「移動或複製」工作表操作時，必須確保兩個文檔都已經打開。

• 第一步：在當前文檔下，找到您要「移動或複製」的工作表的標籤，右擊滑鼠。
• 第二步：從彈出的下列式菜單中，選擇「移動或複製工作表」，打開「移動或複製工作表」對話框。
• 第三步：在「移動或複製工作表」對話框中，
• 選擇您想要的操作：複製 : 或 移動
• 「加入文檔」選項：可以選擇您要放置文檔的位置，默認為當前文檔，如果您打開了另一個電子表格文檔，那麼它的文件名就會出現在

• 前置於選項：選定在目標文檔中放置的位置。
• 新名稱選項：您可以為要「複製」或「移動」的工作表指定另一個名稱。若您不輸入一個名稱，Calc會自動為其命名。
• 第四步：以上選項填好後，單擊「確定」即可。
1. In the current document, right-click on the sheet tab you wish to move or copy.
2. Select Move/Copy Sheet from the context menu.
3. On the Move/Copy Sheet dialog (Figure 107):
• Select the action: Move or Copy.
• To document: select the document in which you want to place the sheet. By default, the field will show the current document. If you have another spreadsheet open, its name will appear in the drop-down list along with -new document-.
• Insert before: select the position within the target document.
• New name: you can rename the sheet you are moving or assign a different name to the copied sheet. If you do not enter a name for a copied sheet, Calc creates a name.
1. When you are done, click OK.

 Caution [[Image:]] If you choose -new document- as the location, a new spreadsheet will be created. This may cause conflicts with formulas linked to other sheets in the previous location. If you accidentally move a sheet, you can fix it by moving or copying the sheet back to the original location. This caution also apply for moving sheets to other existing documents.
 注意 [[Image:]] 若您選擇「－新文檔－」作為目標位置，將會建立一個新電子表格文檔。這可能會導致當前文檔中，一些連結到其他工作表的公式失效。若您只是碰巧移動了文檔，這時您只要把工作表「複製或移動」回原來的文檔，就能解決該問題。 特別注意：當您把工作表移動到其他已有文檔時，也可能會產生這個問題。
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 107: Move/Copy Sheet dialog]]

### 如何刪除工作表

Deleting sheets

Sheets can be deleted individually or in groups.

Single sheet

Right-click on the tab of the sheet you want to delete and choose Delete Sheet from the pop‑up menu, or chose Edit > Sheet > Delete from the menu bar.

Multiple sheets

To delete multiple sheets, select them as described earlier, then either right-click over one of the tabs and select Delete Sheet from the pop-up menu, or choose Edit > Sheet > Delete from the menu bar.

### 如何為工作表重命名

Renaming sheets

The default name for the a new sheet is SheetX, where X is a number. While this works for a small spreadsheet with only a few sheets, it becomes awkward when there are many sheets.

• 在您建立工作表時，直接在名稱框裡輸入名稱，或者使用下列方法;
• 在工作表標籤上右擊滑鼠，然後從彈出式菜單中選擇「重命名工作表」，再在「重命名工作表對話框」中輸入您要取的名稱。
• 雙擊工作表標籤彈出「重命名工作表對話框」，再在「重命名工作表對話框」中輸入您要取的名稱。

To give a sheet a more meaningful name, you can:

• Enter the name in the Name box when you create the sheet, or
• Right-click on a sheet tab and choose Rename Sheet from the pop-up menu; replace the existing name with one of your choosing.
• Double-click on a sheet tab to pop up the Rename Sheet dialog.

 Note Sheet names must start with either a letter or a number. Apart from the first character of the sheet name, allowed characters are letters, numbers, spaces, and the underline character. Attempting to rename a sheet with an invalid name will produce an error message.
 注意 工作表名稱必須以字母或數字、下劃線開頭。為工作表指定一個非法的名稱可能會產生未知錯誤。

## Calc的數據查看功能

Viewing Calc

### 縮放功能的使用

Using zoom

Use the zoom function to change the view to show more or fewer cells in the window. For more about zoom, see Chapter 1, Introducing LibreOffice, in this book.

### 如何凍結行和列

Freezing rows and columns

Freezing locks a number of rows at the top of a spreadsheet or a number of columns on the left of a spreadsheet or both. Then when scrolling around within the sheet, any frozen columns and rows remain in view.

Figure 108 shows some frozen rows and columns. The heavier horizontal line between rows 3 and 14 and the heavier vertical line between columns C and H denote the frozen areas. Rows 4 through 13 and columns D through G have been scrolled off the page. The first three rows and columns remained because are frozen into place. 圖108顯示了凍結的行和列。在3和14行中比較粗的水平線及C和H中比較粗的垂直線組成了凍結區域。行4到行13和列D到列G

[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 108. Frozen rows and columns]]

You can set the freeze point at a row, a column, or both a row and a column as in Figure 108.

Freezing single rows or columns

• 第一步：單擊您要凍結的行標題下方的單元格或列標題右側的單元格。
• 第二步：從菜單欄上選擇「窗口 > 凍結窗口」。被凍結之的單元格區域將會有一條黑線顯示。
1. Click on the header for the row below where you want the freeze or for the column to the right of where you want the freeze.
2. Choose Window > Freeze. A dark line appears, indicating where the freeze is put.

Freezing a row and a column

1. Click into the cell that is immediately below the row you want frozen and immediately to the right of the column you want frozen.
2. Choose Window > Freeze. Two lines appear on the screen, a horizontal line above this cell and a vertical line to the left of this cell. Now as you scroll around the screen, everything above and to the left of these lines will remain in view.

• 第一步：單擊您要凍結的行正下方及列右方的單元格；
• 第二步：從菜單欄上選擇「窗口 > 凍結窗口」。這時屏幕畫面將會出現兩條黑線，水平的線位於該單元格的上方，垂直的線位於該單元格的左側。現在只要您拉動滾動條（水平與垂直均可），位於這兩條線的上方與左側的單元格區域將會繼續顯示在畫面中。

Unfreezing

To unfreeze rows or columns, choose Window > Freeze. The check mark by Freeze will vanish.

### 拆分窗口功能

Splitting the screen

Another way to change the view is by splitting the window, also known as splitting the screen. The screen can be split either horizontally or vertically or both. You can therefore have up to four portions of the spreadsheet in view at any one time.

Why would you want to do this? Imagine you have a large spreadsheet and one of the cells has a number in it which is used by three formulas in other cells. Using the split screen technique, you can position the cell containing the number in one section and each of the cells with formulas in the other sections. Then you can change the number in the cell and watch how it affects each of the formulas.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 109. Split screen example]]

#### 如何水平拆分Calc窗口（畫面）

Splitting the screen horizontally

To split the screen horizontally:

1. Move the mouse pointer into the vertical scroll bar, on the right-hand side of the screen, and place it over the small button at the top with the black triangle. Immediately above this button you will see a thick black line.
• 第一步：把滑鼠光標移到窗口（畫面）右邊的垂直滾動條上，然後把光標放到頂部的黑色小三角形（箭頭狀）按鈕上方。
• 第二步：當滑鼠移到垂直滾動條上方的黑線時，將會變成有上下黑色雙箭頭的光標。
[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 110. Split screen bar on vertical scroll bar]]
• 第三步：按住滑鼠左鍵不放，向下拖動時，便會出現灰色的線橫穿整個窗口（畫面）。向下拖動滑鼠時，這條線也會跟著向下動。
• 第四步：翻譯滑鼠左鍵時，窗口（畫面）便拆分為兩個視圖，每個視圖都含有垂直滾動條，這兩個滾動條的滾動是互相獨立的。
1. Move the mouse pointer over this line and it turns into a line with two arrows.
[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 111. Split screen bar on vertical scroll bar with cursor]]
1. Hold down the left mouse button. A gray line appears, running across the page. Drag the mouse downwards and this line follows.
2. Release the mouse button and the screen splits into two views, each with its own vertical scroll bar. You can scroll the upper and lower parts independently.

Notice in Figure 109, the Beta and the A0 values are in the upper part of the window and other calculations are in the lower part. Thus you can make changes to the Beta and A0 values and watch their affects on the calculations in the lower half of the window.

 Tip You can also split the screen using a menu command. Click in a cell immediately below and to the right of where you wish the screen to be split, and choose Window > Split.
 提示 您也可以通過菜單命令來拆分窗口（畫面）。在您要拆分的窗口（畫面）的下方及右邊的單元格，單擊滑鼠然後選擇窗口 > 拆分窗口。

#### 如何垂直拆分窗口畫面

```Splitting the screen vertically
```

To split the screen vertically:

• 第一步：移動滑鼠光標到窗口底部的水平滾動條上，然後把光標放到最右邊的黑色三角形狀的箭頭上，這裡光標將變為左右的黑色雙箭頭線。
• 第二步：按住滑鼠左鍵不放，拖動時便會出現一條灰色縱向貫穿窗口畫面，向左拖動滑鼠時，這條線也跟著動。（如圖112所示）
• 第三步：釋放滑鼠，然後窗口畫面便拆分為兩個視圖，每個視圖都有水平滾動條，這兩個滾動條是獨立。
1. Move the mouse pointer into the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the screen and place it over the small button on the right with the black triangle. Immediately to the right of this button is a thick black line.
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 112: Split bar on horizontal scroll bar]]
1. Move the mouse pointer over this line and it turns into a line with two arrows.
2. Hold down the left mouse button, and a gray line appears, running up the page. Drag the mouse to the left and this line follows.
3. Release the mouse button and the screen is split into two views, each with its own horizontal scroll bar. You can scroll the left and right parts of the window independently.

#### 如何移除拆分視圖

```Removing split views
```

To remove a split view, do any of the following:

• 雙擊分割線。
• 單擊分割線，然後把它們移到它們所處的滾動條的末端。
• 選擇菜單命令「窗口 > 拆分」，可以一次性地移除所有的分割線。

• Double-click on each split line.
• Click on and drag the split lines back to their places at the ends of the scroll bars.
• Choose Window > Split to remove all split lines at the same time.

## 如何使用鍵盤錄入數據到Calc工作表

Entering data using the keyboard Most data entry in Calc can be accomplished using the keyboard.

### 如何輸入數值

```Entering numbers
```

Click in the cell and type in the number using the number keys on either the main keyboard or the numeric keypad.

To enter a negative number, either type a minus (–) sign in front of it or enclose it in parentheses (brackets), like this: (1234).

By default, numbers are right-aligned and negative numbers have a leading minus symbol.

 Note If a number beginning with 0 is entered in to a cell, Calc will drop the 0 (for example 01234 becomes 1234).

 注 如果輸入單元格的數字是以「0」開始，Calc將會丟棄這個「0」，如輸入"01234",將會變成"1234".

To enter a number and retain the leading 0, right-click on the cell and choose Format Cells > Numbers. In the Format Cells dialog, under Options select the required number of Leading zeros.

「前導零」的個數需要比單元格的數字位數多一。如如果輸入數字為1234，那麼前導零個數就要為5。

The number selected for leading zeros needs to be one higher than the digits in a number. For example, if the number is 1234, the number entered for the leading zero will be 5.

### 文本的輸入

Entering text

Click in the cell and type the text. Text is left-aligned by default.

### 如何把「數值」以文本格式輸入？

Entering numbers as text

A number can be entered as text to preserve a leading zero by entering an apostrophe before the number, like this: '01481.

The data is now regarded as text by Calc and displayed exactly as entered. Typically, formulas will treat the entry as a zero and functions will ignore it. Take care that the cell containing the number is not used in a formula.

 Note If 「smart quotes」 are used for apostrophes, the apostrophe remains visible in the cell. To choose the type of apostrophe, use Tools > AutoCorrect > Custom Quotes. The selection of the apostrophe type affects both Calc and Writer.

 注意 If 「smart quotes」 are used for apostrophes, the apostrophe remains visible in the cell. To choose the type of apostrophe, use Tools > AutoCorrect > Custom Quotes. The selection of the apostrophe type affects both Calc and Writer.

Entering dates and times 輸入日期和時間 Select the cell and type the date or time. You can separate the date elements with a slant (/) or a hyphen (–) or use text such as 15 Oct 10. Calc recognizes a variety of date formats. You can separate time elements with colons such as 10:43:45. 選擇單元格輸入數據和時間，可以用斜線（/）和連字符(-)來區分它和數據，或者用文本，比如15 Oct 10。Ｃalc能識別多種日期格式，你也可以用冒號形式來表示時間，如10：43：45。

### Deactivating automatic changes

Calc automatically applies many changes during data input, unless you deactivate those changes. You can also immediately undo any automatic changes with Ctrl+Z.

AutoCorrect changes

Automatic correction of typing errors, replacement of straight quotation marks by curly (custom) quotes, and starting cell content with an uppercase (capital letter) are controlled by Tools > AutoCorrect Options. Go to the Custom Quotes, Options, or Replace tabs to deactivate any of the features that you do not want. On the Replace tab, you can also delete unwanted word pairs and add new ones as required.

AutoInput

When you are typing in a cell, Calc automatically suggests matching input found in the same column. To turn the AutoInput on and off, set or remove the check mark in front of Tools > Cell Contents > AutoInput.

Automatic date conversion

Calc automatically converts certain entries to dates. To ensure that an entry that looks like a date is interpreted as text, type an apostrophe at the beginning of the entry. The apostrophe is not displayed in the cell.

## 加速數據的輸入

Entering data into a spreadsheet can be very labor-intensive, but Calc provides several tools for removing some of the drudgery from input. 把數據輸入到電子表格是一項很繁瑣且勞動量很大的工作，但是calc提供了幾個可以使你輕鬆搞定數據的工具。 The most basic ability is to drag and drop the contents of one cell to another with a mouse. Calc also includes several other tools for automating input, especially of repetitive material. They include the Fill tool, selection lists, and the ability to input information into multiple sheets of the same document. 最基本的操作是用滑鼠將一個單元格中的內容拖放到另一個單元。calc也有一些填充工具，選項列表，向同一文檔中不同表格中輸入相同信息的工具，特別是重複的數據。

### 在單元格中使用填充工具

At its simplest, the Fill tool is a way to duplicate existing content. Start by selecting the cell to copy, then drag the mouse in any direction (or hold down the Shift key and click in the last cell you want to fill), and then choose Edit > Fill and the direction in which you want to copy: Up, Down, Left or Right. 簡而言之，填充工具就是重複複製已有的內容。首先選擇你要複製的單元格，然後用滑鼠拖向各個方向（或者按下shift鍵然後單擊你要填充的最後一個單元格）然後選擇編輯>填充以及選擇你要複製的方向：上，下，左，右。

 Caution [[Image:]] Choices that are not available are grayed out, but you can still choose the opposite direction from what you intend, which could cause you to overwrite cells accidentally.
 Tip A shortcut way to fill cells is to grab the 「handle」 in the lower right-hand corner of the cell and drag it in the direction you want to fill. If the cell contains a number, the number will fill in series. If the cell contains text, the same text will fill in the direction you chose.
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 114: Using the Fill tool]]

#### Using a fill series

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 115: Result of fill series selection shown in Figure 116]]

A more complex use of the Fill tool is to use a fill series. The default lists are for the full and abbreviated days of the week and the months of the year, but you can create your own lists as well.

To add a fill series to a spreadsheet, select the cells to fill, choose Edit > Fill > Series. In the Fill Series dialog (Figure 116), select AutoFill as the Series type, and enter as the Start value an item from any defined series. The selected cells then fill in the other items on the list sequentially, repeating from the top of the list when they reach the end of the list.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 116: Specifying the start of a fill series (result is in Figure 115)]]

You can also use Edit > Fill > Series to create a one-time fill series for numbers by entering the start and end values and the increment. For example, if you entered start and end values of 1 and 7 with an increment of 2, you would get the sequence of 1, 3, 5, 7.

In all these cases, the Fill tool creates only a momentary connection between the cells. Once they are filled, the cells have no further connection with one another.

#### Defining a fill series

To define your own fill series:

1. Go to Tools > Options > LibreOffice Calc > Sort Lists. This dialog shows the previously-defined series in the Lists box on the left, and the contents of the highlighted list in the Entries box.
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 117: Predefined fill series]]
1. Click New. The Entries box is cleared.
2. Type the series for the new list in the Entries box (one entry per line). Click Add. The new list will now appear in the Lists box.
3. Click OK at the bottom of the dialog to save the new list.
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 118: Defining a new fill series]]

### Using selection lists

Selection lists are available only for text, and are limited to using only text that has already been entered in the same column.

To use a selection list, select a blank cell and press Ctrl+D. A drop-down list appears of any cell in the same column that either has at least one text character or whose format is defined as Text. Click on the entry you require.

[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 119: Using a selection list
]]

## Sharing content between sheets

You might want to enter the same information in the same cell on multiple sheets, for example to set up standard listings for a group of individuals or organizations. Instead of entering the list on each sheet individually, you can enter it in all the sheets at once. To do this, select all the sheets (Edit > Sheet > Select), then enter the information in the current one.

 Caution [[Image:]] This technique overwrites any information that is already in the cells on the other sheets—without any warning. For this reason, when you are finished, be sure to deselect all the sheets except the one you want to edit. (Ctrl+click on a sheet tab to select or deselect the sheet.)

## Validating cell contents

When creating spreadsheets for other people to use, you may want to make sure they enter data that is valid or appropriate for the cell. You can also use validation in your own work as a guide to entering data that is either complex or rarely used.

Fill series and selection lists can handle some types of data, but they are limited to predefined information. To validate new data entered by a user, select a cell and use Data > Validity to define the type of contents that can be entered in that cell. For example, a cell might require a date or a whole number, with no alphabetic characters or decimal points; or a cell may not be left empty.

Depending on how validation is set up, the tool can also define the range of contents that can be entered and provide help messages that explain the content rules you have set up for the cell and what users should do when they enter invalid content. You can also set the cell to refuse invalid content, accept it with a warning, or start a macro when an error is entered.

See Chapter 2, Entering, Editing and Formatting Data, in the Calc Guide for more information.

## Editing data

Editing data is done in much the same way as entering data. The first step is to select the cell containing the data to be edited.

### Removing data from a cell

Data can be removed (deleted) from a cell in several ways.

Removing data only

The data alone can be removed from a cell without removing any of the formatting of the cell. Click in the cell to select it, and then press the Delete key.

Removing data and formatting

The data and the formatting can be removed from a cell at the same time. Press the Backspace key (or right-click and choose Delete Contents, or use Edit > Delete Contents) to open the Delete Contents dialog. From this dialog, the different aspects of the cell can be deleted. To delete everything in a cell (contents and format), check Delete all.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 120: Delete Contents dialog]]

### Replacing all the data in a cell

To remove data and insert new data, simply type over the old data. The new data will retain the original formatting.

### Changing part of the data in a cell

Sometimes it is necessary to change the contents of cell without removing all of the contents, for example if the phrase 「Sales in Qtr. 2」 is in a cell and it needs to be changed to 「Sales rose in Qtr. 2」 It is often useful to do this without deleting the old cell contents first.

The process is the similar to the one described above, but you need to place the cursor inside the cell. You can do this in two ways.

Using the keyboard

After selecting the appropriate cell, press the F2 key and the cursor is placed at the end of the cell. Then use the keyboard arrow keys to move the cursor through the text in the cell.

Using the mouse

Using the mouse, either double-click on the appropriate cell (to select it and place the cursor in it for editing), or single-click to select the cell and then move the mouse pointer up to the input line and click into it to place the cursor for editing.

## Formatting data

The data in Calc can be formatted in several ways. It can either be edited as part of a cell style so that it is automatically applied, or it can be applied manually to the cell. Some manual formatting can be applied using toolbar icons. For more control and extra options, select the appropriate cell or cells, right-click on it, and select Format Cells. All of the format options are discussed below.

 Note All the settings discussed in this section can also be set as a part of the cell style. See Chapter 4 in the Calc Guide for more information.

### Formatting multiple lines of text

Multiple lines of text can be entered into a single cell using automatic wrapping or manual line breaks. Each method is useful for different situations.

#### Using automatic wrapping

To set text to wrap at the end of the cell, right-click on the cell and select Format Cells (or choose Format > Cells from the menu bar, or press Ctrl+1). On the Alignment tab (Figure 121), under Properties, select Wrap text automatically and click OK. The results are shown in Figure 122.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 121: Format Cells > Alignment dialog]]
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 122: Automatic text wrap]]

#### Using manual line breaks

To insert a manual line break while typing in a cell, press Ctrl+Enter. This method does not work with the cursor in the input line. When editing text, first double-click the cell, then single-click at the position where you want the line break.

When a manual line break is entered, the cell width does not change. Figure 123 shows the results of using two manual line breaks after the first line of text.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 123: Cell with manual line breaks]]

### Shrinking text to fit the cell

The font size of the data in a cell can automatically adjust to fit in a cell. To do this, select the Shrink to fit cell size option in the Format Cells dialog (Figure 121). Figure 124 shows the results.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 124: Shrinking font size to fit cells]]

### Formatting numbers

Several different number formats can be applied to cells by using icons on the Formatting toolbar. Select the cell, then click the relevant icon.

[[Image:|thumb|
Figure 125: Number format icons. Left to right: currency, percentage, date, exponential, standard, add decimal place, delete decimal place.]]

For more control or to select other number formats, use the Numbers tab (Figure 126) of the Format Cells dialog:

• Apply any of the data types in the Category list to the data.
• Control the number of decimal places and leading zeros.
• Enter a custom format code.

The Language setting controls the local settings for the different formats such as the date order and the currency marker.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 126: Format Cells > Numbers]]

### Formatting the font

To quickly choose the font used in a cell, select the cell, then click the arrow next to the Font Name box on the Formatting toolbar and choose a font from the list.

 Tip To choose whether to show the font names in their font or in plain text, go to Tools > Options > LibreOffice > View and select or deselect the Show preview of fonts option in the Font Lists section. For more information, see Chapter 2, Setting Up LibreOffice.

[[Image:]]To choose the size of the font, click the arrow next to the Font Size box on the Formatting toolbar. For other formatting, you can use the Bold, Italic, or Underline icons.

To choose a font color, click the arrow next to the Font Color icon to display the color palette. Click on the desired color.

(To define custom colors, use Tools > Options > LibreOffice > Colors. See Chapter 2.)

To specify the language of the cell (useful because it allows different languages to exist in the same document and be spell checked correctly), use the Font tab of the Format Cells dialog. Use the Font Effects tab to set other font characteristics. See Chapter 4, Using Styles and Templates in Calc, of the Calc Guide for more information.

### Formatting the cell borders

To add a border to a cell (or group of selected cells), click on the Borders icon on the formatting toolbar, and select one of the border options displayed in the palette.

To quickly choose a line style and color for the borders of a cell, click the small arrows next to the Line Style and Line Color icons on the Formatting toolbar. In each case, a palette of choices is displayed.

For more controls, including the spacing between the cell borders and the text, use the Borders tab of the Format Cells dialog. There you can also define a shadow. See Chapter 4, Using Styles and Templates in Calc, of the Calc Guide for details.

 Note The cell border properties apply to a cell, and can only be changed if you are editing that cell. For example, if cell C3 has a top border (which would be equivalent visually to a bottom border on C2), that border can only be removed by selecting C3. It cannot be removed in C2.

### Formatting the cell background

To quickly choose a background color for a cell, click the small arrow next to the Background Color icon on the Formatting toolbar. A palette of color choices, similar to the Font Color palette, is displayed.

(To define custom colors, use Tools > Options > LibreOffice > Colors. See Chapter 2 for more information.)

You can also use the Background tab of the Format Cells dialog. See Chapter 4, Using Styles and Templates in Calc, of the Calc Guide for details.

## Autoformatting cells and sheets

You can use the AutoFormat feature to quickly apply a set of cell formats to a sheet or a selected cell range.

1. Select the cells, including the column and row headers, that you want to format.
2. Choose Format > AutoFormat.

 Note The AutoFormat feature can only be applied if the selected set of cells contains at least 3 columns and 3 rows and also includes the column and row headers.
1. To select which properties (number format, font, alignment, borders, pattern, autofit width and height) to include in an AutoFormat, click More. Select or deselect the required options.
2. Click OK.

If you do not see any change in color of the cell contents, choose View > Value Highlighting from the menu bar.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 127: Choosing an AutoFormat]]

### Defining a new AutoFormat

You can define a new AutoFormat that is available to all spreadsheets.

1. Format a sheet (in the style for the new AutoFormat).
2. Choose Edit > Select All.
3. Choose Format > AutoFormat. The Add button is now active.
5. In the Name box of the Add AutoFormat dialog, type a meaningful name for the new format.
6. Click OK to save. The new format is now available in the Format list in the AutoFormat dialog.

Calc comes with a predefined set of formatting themes that you can apply to your spreadsheets.

It is not possible to add themes to Calc, and they cannot be modified. However, you can modify their styles after you apply them to a spreadsheet.

To apply a theme to a spreadsheet:

1. Click the Choose Themes icon in the Tools toolbar. If this toolbar is not visible, you can show it using View > Toolbars > Tools.

The Theme Selection dialog appears. This dialog lists the available themes for the whole spreadsheet.

[[Image:]]
1. In the Theme Selection dialog, select the theme that you want to apply to the spreadsheet.

As soon as you select a theme, some of the properties of the custom styles are applied to the open spreadsheet and are immediately visible.

1. Click OK. If you wish, you can now go to the Styles and Formatting window to modify specific styles. These modifications do not change the theme; they only change the appearance of this specific spreadsheet document.

## Using conditional formatting

You can set up cell formats to change depending on conditions that you specify. For example, in a table of numbers, you can show all the values above the average in green and all those below the average in red.

Conditional formatting depends upon the use of styles, and the AutoCalculate feature (Tools > Cell Contents > AutoCalculate) must be enabled. See Chapter 2, Entering, Editing, and Formatting Data, in the Calc Guide for details.

## Hiding and showing data

When elements are hidden, they are neither visible nor printed, but can still be selected for copying if you select the elements around them. For example, if column B is hidden, it is copied when you select columns A and C. When you need a hidden element again, you can reverse the process, and show the element.

To hide or show sheets, rows, and columns, use the options on the Format menu or the right-click (context) menu. For example, to hide a row, first select the row, and then choose Format > Row > Hide (or right-click and choose Hide).

To hide or show selected cells, choose Format > Cells from the menu bar (or right-click and choose Format Cells). On the Format Cells dialog, go to the Cell Protection tab.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 128: Hiding or showing cells]]

### Outline group controls

If you are continually hiding and showing the same cells, you can simplify the process by creating outline groups, which add a set of controls for hiding and showing the cells in the group that are quick to use and always available.

If the contents of cells falls into a regular pattern, such as four cells followed by a total, then you can use Data > Group and Outline > AutoOutline to have Calc add outline controls based on the pattern. Otherwise, you can set outline groups manually by selecting the cells for grouping, then choosing Data > Group and Outline > Group. On the Group dialog, you can choose whether to group the selected cells by rows or columns.

When you close the dialog, the outline group controls are visible between either the row or column headers and the edges of the editing window. The controls resemble the tree-structure of a file-manager in appearance, and can be hidden by selecting Data > Outline > Hide Details. They are strictly for on screen use, and do not print.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 129: Outline group controls]]

The basic outline controls have plus or minus signs at the start of the group to show or hide hidden cells. However, if outline groups are nested, the controls have numbered buttons for hiding different levels.

If you no longer need a group, place the mouse cursor in any cell in it and select Data > Group and Outline > Ungroup. To remove all groups on a sheet, select Data > Group and Outline > Remove.

### Filtering which cells are visible

A filter is a list of conditions that each entry has to meet in order to be displayed. You can set three types of filters from the Data > Filter sub-menu.

Automatic filters add a drop-down list to the top row of a column that contains commonly used filters. They are quick and convenient and are useful with text and with numbers, because the list includes every unique entry in the selected cells.

In addition to these unique entries, automatic filters include the option to display all entries, the ten highest numerical values, and all cells that are empty or not-empty, as well as a standard filter. The automatic filters are somewhat limited. In particular, they do not allow regular expressions, so you cannot use them to display cell contents that are similar, but not identical.

Standard filters are more complex than automatic filters. You can set as many as three conditions as a filter, combining them with the operators AND and OR. Standard filters are mostly useful for numbers, although a few of the conditional operators, such as = and < > can also be useful for text.

Other conditional operators for standard filters include options to display the largest or smallest values, or a percentage of them. Useful in themselves, standard filters take on added value when used to further refine automatic filters.

Advanced filters are structured similarly to standard filters. The differences are that advanced filters are not limited to three conditions, and their criteria are not entered in a dialog. Instead, advanced filters are entered in a blank area of a sheet, then referenced by the advanced filter tool to apply them.

## Sorting records

Sorting arranges the visible cells on the sheet. In Calc, you can sort by up to three criteria, which are applied one after another. Sorts are handy when you are searching for a particular item, and become even more powerful after you have filtered data.

In addition, sorting is often useful when you add new information. When a list is long, it is usually easier to add new information at the bottom of the sheet, rather than adding rows in the proper places. After you have added information, you can then sort it to update the sheet.

Highlight the cells to be sorted, then select Data > Sort to open the Sort dialog (or click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending toolbar buttons). Using the dialog, you can sort the selected cells using up to three columns, in either ascending (A-Z, 1-9) or descending (Z-A, 9-1) order.

On the Options tab of the Sort dialog, you can choose the following options:

Case sensitive

If two entries are otherwise identical, one with an upper case letter is placed before one with a lower case letter in the same position.

Range contains column labels

Does not include the column heading in the sort.

Include formats

A cell's formatting is moved with its contents. If formatting is used to distinguish different types of cells, then use this option.

Copy sort results to

Sets a spreadsheet address to which to copy the sort results. If a range is specified that does not have the necessary number of cells, then cells are added. If a range contains cells that already have content, then the sort fails.

Custom sort order

Select the box, then choose one of the sort orders defined in Tools > Options > Spreadsheet > Sort Lists from the drop-down list.

Direction

Sets whether rows or columns are sorted. The default is to sort by columns unless the selected cells are in a single column.

## Using formulas and functions

You may need more than numbers and text on your spreadsheet. Often the contents of one cell depend on the contents of other cells. Formulas are equations using numbers and variables to get a result. The variables are cell locations that hold the data you need for the equation.

A function is a predefined calculation entered in a cell to help you analyze or manipulate data. All you have to do is add the arguments, and the calculation is automatically made for you. Functions help you create the formulas needed to get the results that you are looking for.

## Analyzing data

Calc includes several tools to help you analyze the information in your spreadsheets, ranging from features for copying and reusing data, to creating subtotals automatically, to varying information to help you find the answers you need. These tools are divided between the Tools and Data menus.

One of the most useful of these tools is the PivotTable (called DataPilot in Calc 3.3). This is a tool for combining, comparing, and analyzing large amounts of data easily. Using the PivotTable, you can view different summaries of the source data, display the details of areas of interest, and create reports, whether you are a beginner, an intermediate or advanced user. Refer to Chapter 8 in the Calc Guide for more information.

Other analysis options include:

Consolidation

Data > Consolidate provides a way to combine data from two or more ranges of cells into a new range while running one of several functions (such as Sum or Average) on the data.

Subtotals

Use Data > Subtotals to calculate subtotals for up to three columns.

Scenarios

Tools > Scenarios opens a dialog for testing 「what-if」 questions, such as different interest rates on a loan.

Goal seek

Use Tools > Goal Seek if you know the result you want, but need to discover what values will produce this result.

Solver

Tools > Solver is similar to Goal Seek, but you can use more than one variable. The Solver is designed to minimize or maximize the result according to a set of rules that you define.

All of these options are further discussed in Chapter 9 in the Calc Guide.

## Printing

Printing from Calc is much the same as printing from other LibreOffice components (see Chapter 10), but some details are different, especially regarding preparation for printing.

### Using print ranges

Print ranges have several uses, including printing only a specific part of the data or printing selected rows or columns on every page. For more about using print ranges, see Chapter 6, Printing, Exporting, and E-mailing, in the Calc Guide.

#### Defining a print range

To define a new print range or modify an existing print range:

1. Highlight the range of cells that comprise the print range.
2. Choose Format > Print Ranges > Define.

The page break lines display on the screen.

 Tip You can check the print range by using File > Page Preview. LibreOffice will only display the cells in the print range.

#### Adding to the print range

After defining a print range, you can add more cells to it. This allows multiple, separate areas of the same sheet to be printed, while not printing the whole sheet. After you have defined a print range:

1. Highlight the range of cells to be added to the print range.
2. Choose Format > Print Ranges > Add. This adds the extra cells to the print range.

The page break lines no longer display on the screen.

 Note The additional print range will print as a separate page, even if both ranges are on the same sheet.

#### Removing a print range

It may become necessary to remove a defined print range, for example if the whole sheet needs to be printed later.

Choose Format > Print Ranges > Remove. This removes all defined print ranges on the sheet. After the print range is removed, the default page break lines will appear on the screen.

#### Editing a print range

At any time, you can directly edit the print range, for example to remove or resize part of the print range. Choose Format > Print Ranges > Edit.

### Selecting the page order, details, and scale

To select the page order, details, and scale to be printed:

1. Choose Format > Page from the main menu.
2. On the Page Style dialog (Figure 130), select the Sheet tab.
3. Make your selections, and then click OK.

Page Order

When a sheet will print on more than one page, you can set the order in which pages print. This is especially useful in a large document; for example, controlling the print order can save time if you have to collate the document a certain way. The two available options are shown below.

 Top to bottom, then right [[Image:]] Left to right, then down [[Image:]]
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 130. The Sheet tab of the Page Style dialog]]

Details

You can specify which details to print. These details include:

• Sheet grid—prints the borders of the cells as a grid
• Objects and graphics
• Charts
• Drawing objects
• Formulas—prints the formulas contained in the cells, instead of the results
• Zero Values—prints cells with a zero value

 Note Remember that since the print detail options are a part of the page’s properties, they are also a part of the page style’s properties. Therefore, different page styles can be set up to quickly change the print properties of the sheets in the spreadsheet.

Scale

Use the scale features to control the number of pages the data will print on. This can be useful if a large amount of data needs to be printed compactly or if you want the text enlarged to make it easier to read.

• Reduce/Enlarge printout—scales the data in the printout either larger or smaller. For example if a sheet would normally print out as four pages (two high and two wide), a scaling of 50% would print as one page (both width and height are halved).
• Fit print range(s) on number of pages—defines exactly how many pages the printout will take up. This option will only reduce a printout, it will not enlarge it. To enlarge a printout, the reduce/enlarge option must be used.
• Fit print range(s) to width/height—defines how high and wide the printout will be, in pages.

### Printing rows or columns on every page

If a sheet is printed on multiple pages, you can set up certain rows or columns to repeat on each printed page.

For example, if the top two rows of the sheet as well as column A need to be printed on all pages, do the following:

1. Choose Format > Print Ranges > Edit. On the Edit Print Ranges dialog, type the rows in the text entry box under Rows to repeat. For example, to repeat rows 1 and 2, type \$1:\$2. This automatically changes Rows to repeat from, - none - to - user defined -.
[[Image:|thumb|Figure 131: Specifying repeating rows]]
1. To repeat, type the columns in the text entry box under Columns to repeat. For example, to repeat column A, type \$A. In the Columns to repeat list, - none - changes to - user defined -.
2. Click OK.

 Note You do not need to select the entire range of the rows to be repeated; selecting one cell in each row works.

### Page breaks

While defining a print range can be a powerful tool, it may sometimes be necessary to manually adjust Calc’s printout. To do this, you can use a manual break. A manual break helps to ensure that your data prints properly. You can insert a horizontal page break above, or a vertical page break to the left of, the active cell.

#### Inserting a page break

To insert a page break:

1. Navigate to the cell where the page break will begin.
2. Select Insert > Manual Break.
3. Select Row Break or Column Break depending on your need.

The break is now set.

Row break

Selecting Row Break creates a page break above the selected cell. For example, if the active cell is H15, then the break is created between rows 14 and 15.

Column break

Selecting Column Break creates a page break to the left of the selected cell. For example, if the active cell is H15, then the break is created between columns G and H.

 Tip To see page break lines more easily on screen, you can change their color. Choose Tools > Options > LibreOffice > Appearance and scroll down to the Spreadsheet section.

#### Deleting a page break

To remove a page break:

1. Navigate to a cell that is next to the break you want to remove.
2. Select Edit > Delete Manual Break.
3. Select Row Break or Column Break depending on your need.

The break is now removed.

 Note Multiple manual row and column breaks can exist on the same page. When you want to remove them, you have to remove each one individually. This may be confusing at times, because although there may be a column break set on the page, when you go to Edit > Manual Break, Column break may be grayed out. In order to remove the break, you have to be in the cell next to the break. For example, if you set the column break while you are in H15, you can not remove it if you are in cell D15. However, you can remove it from any cell in column H.

Headers and footers are predefined pieces of text that are printed at the top or bottom of a sheet outside of the sheet area. Headers are set in the same way as footers.

Headers and footers are assigned to a page style. You can define more than one page style for a spreadsheet and assign different page styles to different sheets. For more about page styles, see Chapter 4, Using Styles and Templates, in the Calc Guide.

#### Setting a header or footer

To set a header or footer:

1. Navigate to the sheet that you want to set the header or footer for. Choose Format > Page.
2. On the Page Style dialog, select the Header (or Footer) tab. See Figure 132.
3. Select the Header on option.

From here you can also set the margins, the spacing, and height for the header or footer. You can check the AutoFit height box to automatically adjust the height of the header or footer.

Margin

Changing the size of the left or right margin adjusts how far the header or footer is from the side of the page.

Spacing

Spacing affects how far above or below the sheet the header or footer will print. So, if spacing is set to 1.00", then there will be 1 inch between the header or footer and the sheet.

Height

Height affects how big the header or footer will be.

To change the appearance of the header or footer, click the More button in the header dialog. This opens the Border/Background dialog (Figure 133).

From this dialog you can set the background and border of the header or footer. For more information see Chapter 4, Using Styles and Templates, in the Calc Guide.

#### Setting the contents of the header or footer

The header or footer of a Calc spreadsheet has three columns for text. Each column can have different contents.

To set the contents of the header or footer, click the Edit button in the header or footer dialog shown in Figure 132 to display the dialog shown in Figure 134.

[[Image:|thumb|Figure 134: Edit contents of header or footer]]

Areas

Each area in the header or footer is independent and can have different information in it.

You can select from several preset choices in the Header drop-down list, or specify a custom header using the buttons below the area boxes. (To format a footer, the choices are the same.)

Click in the area (Left, Center, Right) that you want to customize, then use the buttons to add elements or change text attributes.

[[Image:]] Opens the Text Attributes dialog.

[[Image:]] Inserts the total number of pages.

[[Image:]] Inserts the File Name field.

[[Image:]] Inserts the Date field.

[[Image:]] Inserts the Sheet Name field.

[[Image:]] Inserts the Time field.

[[Image:]] Inserts the current page number.