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人類生理學/免疫系統

维基教科书,自由的教学读本

簡介[编辑]

像城堡一樣的免疫系統[编辑]

淋巴系統(Lymphatic System)[编辑]

Lymphatic Pathways[编辑]

Lymph[编辑]

水腫[编辑]

Lymphatic Vessels and Ducts[编辑]

Organs, Tissues and Cells of the Immune System[编辑]

白血球(Leukocytes)[编辑]

Defenses Against Infection[编辑]

Innate Defense – first line of defense[编辑]

Non-specific responses to infection - 2nd line of defense[编辑]

Inflammatory response[编辑]

Complement System[编辑]

Interferon in response to viral infection[编辑]

Adaptive Defense (Specific Defense--third line of defense)[编辑]

Lymphocytes[编辑]

B細胞製造抗體[编辑]
T細胞攻擊已感染細胞[编辑]

免疫反應路徑[编辑]

發炎[编辑]

細胞內防禦[编辑]

Acquired Immunity: Antigen-specific Responses[编辑]

Allergic Responses/Inflammatory Responses[编辑]

Infectious Organisms and Immunization[编辑]

Immune System Disorders[编辑]

過敏反應[编辑]

自身免疫性疾病[编辑]

免疫不全疾病[编辑]

Different Types of T Lymphocyte Cells[编辑]

The Immune System Pioneers[编辑]

複習問題[编辑]

詞彙表[编辑]

抗體(Antibody): Antibody or (immunoglobulin) is a protein generated by the immune system (B cells) in response to a foreign substance (antigen).

Antibody titer: A test done to check the immunity of vaccination, when identification of a low immunity to a vaccine a booster shot can be given to increase the immunity.

抗原(Antigen):Protein (or polysaccharide) molecule that the body recognizes as nonself. Substance body recognizes as foreign such as, fungi, viruses, protozoans, parasitic worms, pollen, poison ivy plant resin, insect venom, and transplanted organs.

防腐劑(Antiseptic):Antimicrobial substance applied to living tissue or skin to prevent infection.

細胞凋亡(Apoptosis):程序性的細胞死亡

B 細胞(B Cell):Lymphocytes that are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity

嗜鹼性粒細胞(Basophils):WBC that release histamine and other chemicals

Chemotaxis:Movement of cells, phagocytes especially, they move in a specific direction in a tumbling fashion like rolling this is all due to a chemical stimulant.

Complement System:Biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps clear pathogens from an organism, and promote healing

細胞激素(Cytokines):Regulatory peptides that control cell development,differentiation, and the immune response

樹狀細胞(Dendritic cell):激活淋巴細胞的細胞

Diapedesis:The movement of WBC's from the blood to the surrounding tissue. A mechanism of the kind phagocyte that will walk or crawl out of the blood stream to site of infection.

Edema:Swelling that forms when too much tissue fluid forms or not enough taken away

Eosinophils:WBC that fight parasites and contribute to allergic reactions

Histamine:Histamine is a chemical involved in inflammation, this chemical makes capillaries leaky, in this it will move more fluid out into the tissue spaces.

IgA:Found in breast milk, mucus, saliva, and tears. This immunoglobulin functions to stop the pathogens before entry to the internal environment.

IgD:This immunoglobulin is found on B-cells and function is not known.

IgE:This immunoglobulin is combined with mast cells that in turn release histamine, this kind of globulin is released in the presence of an allergic response or parasitic infection.

IgG:This immunoglobulin is the majority of the specific immunity against bacteria and viruses in the extracellular fluid.

IgM:This immunoglobulin is associated to antibodies that react to incompatibility of ABO and Rh factor grouping.

Immunoglobulins:Proteins that are antibodies receptors on the surface of B-cells, there are five classes.

Kinins: Kinins is a chemical involved in inflammation, it is inactive in blood plasma but become activated by tissue damage and in turn stimulate pain receptors in skin.

Leukocytes: primary cells of the immune system; also called white blood cells

Lymph: fluid of the lymph system; originates as blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries of the circulatory system, becoming interstitial fluid, filling the space between individual cells of tissue

Lymphocytes: The key cells that mediate the acquired immune response of the body

Lymph Nodes: Small oval shaped structures located along the lymphatic vessels

Lysosome: Organelle containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) that digest viruses, bacteria, food particles and worn out organelles

Lysozyme: Enzyme that attacks cell walls of bacteria and breaks them down; found and used as an antiseptic property in the body's first line of defense (ie. saliva, tears, sweat, etc)

Macrophages: WBC that are the primary scavengers within tissues

Membrane Attack Complex (MAC): Work in the same way as the perforins of the NK cells that is it punches holes in the membrane that causes lysis.

Neutrophils: WBC that "eat" bacteria and release cytokines

Opsonin: Any substance that promotes a phagocytosis by binding a microbe to a phagocyte.

Perforin: Protein secreted by cytotoxic T cells, causes pores to form in the plasma membrane of the target cell resulting in lysis.

Peyer’s Patches: located in the wall of the intestine and the appendix, attached to the cecum of the large intestine, intercept pathogens that come into the body through the intestinal tract

Phagocytes: WBC that engulf and ingest their targets by phagocytosis

熱原(Pyrogens): Foreign substances and or microorganisms that causes hypothalamic thermoregulatory center to increase and causes fever (pyrexia)

右淋巴管(Right Lymphatic Duct): Lymphatic duct that serves all of the right side of the upper body and thorasic area(head,neck)

脾臟(Spleen): Ductless, vertebrate gland that is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood

T細胞(T Cell): cells that carry out cell-mediated immunity

胸導管(Thoracic Duct): Lymphatic duct that serves the abdomen, lower extremities and the left side of the upper body(head,neck, and arm)

胸腺(Thymus Gland): Gland that contains lymphocytes; produces thymosin that is thought to aid in the maturation of T lymphocytes