英语/第4课/定语从句

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英语 > 定语从句


什么是定语从句[编辑]

定义:在一个复合句中,跟在主句后修饰某一名词或代词(统称为先行词)的从句叫做定语从句(The Attributive Clause).被定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词(Antecedent).定语从句通常跟在先行词之后,由关系词(Relatives)引出.因此,定语从句又可称为关系分句. 定语从句主要分为非限制性定语从句和限制性定语从句。

关系词[编辑]

关系词可分为:

(1)关系代词 e.g.:that,which,who,whom,whose etc.

(2)关系副词 e.g.:when,where,why etc.

关系词既起着联系从句与主句的作用,又代替先行词在从句中担任一定的语法成分.如主句,宾语,定语,状语等.

e.g.:

  The woman who is standing by the classroom is our Chinese teacher.

在此句中,the woman是先行词;关系代词who引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任主语.

  This is the room where Bin Ladin once lived.

在此句中,the room是先行词;关系副词where引导定语从句并在从句中担任地点状语.

关系代词引导定语从句[编辑]

Who:代替人.

做主语:

  The girl who plays the piano very well is his girlfriend.

做表语:

  She is no longer the woman who she used to be.

做宾语:

  I can't remember the man who I gave the key to.

Whom:代替人.

做动词宾语:

  Where is the student whom Professor Nirth praised at the meeting.

做介词宾语:

  The girl with whom he was traveling is his girlfriend.

注:在“介词提前”即“介词+关系代词”结构出现时,关系代词只能用 whom 和 which 。

Whose(=of whom/Which):

代替人(做从句中某名词的定语):

  She is looking after the little child whose parents have gone to Singapore.

代替物(做从句中某名词的定语):

  He lived in the room whose windows face south.


That:

代替人:

做主语:

  The man that is speaking at the meeting is a famous scientist.

做宾语:

  Is this the teacher that you talked about yesterday.

做表语:

  She is no longer the girl that she was in her childhood.

代替物:

做主语:

  The train that has just left is for Beijing.

做宾语:

  Is this the photo that you took last summer?

做表语:

  I wish my home town was not a polluted place that you think it to be.


Which:代替物.

做主语:

  The building which stands near the train station is a company.

做宾语:

  The computer which she wanted to buy was sold out.

做表语:

  She was fond of dancing,which her husband never was.

关系副词引导宾语从句[编辑]

关系副词在意义上常常相当与一个"prep.+which"的结构.

When(=at,on,in,during + which):代替时间名词.做时间状语:

  I shall never forget the day when(on which) we moved into our new flat.

Where(=in,at + which):代替地点名词.做时间状语:

  This is the place where(at which) John parks his car.

Why(=for which):代替指代原因.做原因状语:

  She didn't know the reason why(for which) she was dismissed.


as引导的定语从句[编辑]

(1)引导限定性定语从句.

as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句,并在从句中做主语,宾语,表语或状语,构成:the...same as, such...as, so...as 等结构.

做主语:

  Here are such questions as are often asked by the universtiy students.

做宾语:

  This is the same T-shirt as I have bought.

做表语:

  She has never seen such a handsome boy as I am. 

做方式状语:

  She'll do the experiment the same way as I do.

做时间状语:

  I came the same day as he left.

做地点状语:

  She studies in the same college as he does.

做原因状语:

  She didn't believe such reason as he did so.

做结果状语:

  Here is so difficult a question as nobody can answer.


(2)引导非限定性定语从句. as引导非限定性定语从句时,代替整个主句,对其进行说明.一般用于as we all know,as is known to all,as it is,as is said above,as already mentioned above,as is usual,as is often the case,as is reported in the newspaper等句式中.as引导非限定性定语从句中做主语,表语或宾语,且引出的从句位置比较灵活,可位于句首或句尾,也可插如入主句中间.通常由逗号将其与主句隔开.as此时有"正如...","就像..."之意.

在从句中做主语:

  As is known to China,Qu Yuan is a great Chinese poet. 

在从句中做主语:

  He forgot to bring his textbook with him,as was often the case.

在从句中做表语:

  She is absorbed in work,as she often was.

在从句中做宾语:

  As we all know,the moon is round.