英語/第4課/定語從句

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什麼是定語從句[編輯]

定義:在一個複合句中,跟在主句後修飾某一名詞或代詞(統稱為先行詞)的從句叫做定語從句(The Attributive Clause).被定語從句所修飾的詞叫做先行詞(Antecedent).定語從句通常跟在先行詞之後,由關係詞(Relatives)引出.因此,定語從句又可稱為關係分句. 定語從句主要分為非限制性定語從句和限制性定語從句。

關係詞[編輯]

關係詞可分為:

(1)關係代詞 e.g.:that,which,who,whom,whose etc.

(2)關係副詞 e.g.:when,where,why etc.

關係詞既起着聯繫從句與主句的作用,又代替先行詞在從句中擔任一定的語法成分.如主句,賓語,定語,狀語等.

e.g.:

  The woman who is standing by the classroom is our Chinese teacher.

在此句中,the woman是先行詞;關係代詞who引導定語從句,同時代替先行詞在從句中擔任主語.

  This is the room where Bin Ladin once lived.

在此句中,the room是先行詞;關係副詞where引導定語從句並在從句中擔任地點狀語.

關係代詞引導定語從句[編輯]

Who:代替人.

做主語:

  The girl who plays the piano very well is his girlfriend.

做表語:

  She is no longer the woman who she used to be.

做賓語:

  I can't remember the man who I gave the key to.

Whom:代替人.

做動詞賓語:

  Where is the student whom Professor Nirth praised at the meeting.

做介詞賓語:

  The girl with whom he was traveling is his girlfriend.

註:在「介詞提前」即「介詞+關係代詞」結構出現時,關係代詞只能用 whom 和 which 。

Whose(=of whom/Which):

代替人(做從句中某名詞的定語):

  She is looking after the little child whose parents have gone to Singapore.

代替物(做從句中某名詞的定語):

  He lived in the room whose windows face south.


That:

代替人:

做主語:

  The man that is speaking at the meeting is a famous scientist.

做賓語:

  Is this the teacher that you talked about yesterday.

做表語:

  She is no longer the girl that she was in her childhood.

代替物:

做主語:

  The train that has just left is for Beijing.

做賓語:

  Is this the photo that you took last summer?

做表語:

  I wish my home town was not a polluted place that you think it to be.


Which:代替物.

做主語:

  The building which stands near the train station is a company.

做賓語:

  The computer which she wanted to buy was sold out.

做表語:

  She was fond of dancing,which her husband never was.

關係副詞引導賓語從句[編輯]

關係副詞在意義上常常相當與一個"prep.+which"的結構.

When(=at,on,in,during + which):代替時間名詞.做時間狀語:

  I shall never forget the day when(on which) we moved into our new flat.

Where(=in,at + which):代替地點名詞.做時間狀語:

  This is the place where(at which) John parks his car.

Why(=for which):代替指代原因.做原因狀語:

  She didn't know the reason why(for which) she was dismissed.


as引導的定語從句[編輯]

(1)引導限定性定語從句.

as用作關係代詞和關係副詞引導限定性定語從句,並在從句中做主語,賓語,表語或狀語,構成:the...same as, such...as, so...as 等結構.

做主語:

  Here are such questions as are often asked by the universtiy students.

做賓語:

  This is the same T-shirt as I have bought.

做表語:

  She has never seen such a handsome boy as I am. 

做方式狀語:

  She'll do the experiment the same way as I do.

做時間狀語:

  I came the same day as he left.

做地點狀語:

  She studies in the same college as he does.

做原因狀語:

  She didn't believe such reason as he did so.

做結果狀語:

  Here is so difficult a question as nobody can answer.


(2)引導非限定性定語從句. as引導非限定性定語從句時,代替整個主句,對其進行說明.一般用於as we all know,as is known to all,as it is,as is said above,as already mentioned above,as is usual,as is often the case,as is reported in the newspaper等句式中.as引導非限定性定語從句中做主語,表語或賓語,且引出的從句位置比較靈活,可位於句首或句尾,也可插如入主句中間.通常由逗號將其與主句隔開.as此時有"正如...","就像..."之意.

在從句中做主語:

  As is known to China,Qu Yuan is a great Chinese poet. 

在從句中做主語:

  He forgot to bring his textbook with him,as was often the case.

在從句中做表語:

  She is absorbed in work,as she often was.

在從句中做賓語:

  As we all know,the moon is round.