维基教科书:格式手册

维基教科书,自由的教学读本
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Blue question mark.svg 本页或以下篇幅是一项有關维基教科書的方针、指引或流程的提议。该提议可能仍需要进一步的完善,需要更多讨论并进一步获得社群的共识来确立。请勿在引用或者链接中把本页的描述作为一项正式的方针或指引。

The Wikibooks Manual of Style serves to illustrate good structural and stylistic practices to help editors produce higher quality wikibooks.

Wikibook titles[编辑]

See also Wikibooks:Naming policy for information on how to name books and their chapters.

Wikibooks should be titled based on their aspect. This is a combination of the target audience, scope, and depth of the book. Several books on one topic but with differing aspects can exist (see Wikibooks:Forking policy for details). For example, a book on woodwork aimed at the general public may be entitled simply "Woodworking", and a mathematics text for commerce students may be called "Mathematics for Commerce" or "Commercial Mathematics" instead of simply "Mathematics".

Some people prefer to use title casing like books often do, while other people prefer to use sentence casing like Wikipedia does. Title casing can reduce the potential for conflict with categories. For this reason title casing is often preferred more by Wikibookians. Whichever scheme you use please be consistent and follow the existing style for books you are editing.

Structure[编辑]

See also book design for some helpful tips and ideas.

Main page[编辑]

The main page is generally the first page a new reader sees. It should give a quick overview of the scope, intended audience and layout of the book. Splash pages should be avoided. Often the layout is simply the full table of contents. Collections, printable versions and PDF files should be easily accessible from this page.

Links to the book from the card catalog office and external websites, should point to a book's main page. The subject index on the card catalog office requires the {{subject}} template to be placed on the main page. The book's main page or category should also be placed in any other categories that it belongs to. If you still require help with categorizing a book, please request assistance in the reading room.

Interlingual links should be placed on the book's main page. Books across language projects may be dissimilar even when about the same subject. Be wary about placing interlingual links on any other pages.

Table of contents[编辑]

In general, the table of contents should reside on the main page, giving readers an overview of the available material. In cases where this is impractical, a special page can be created for it. Common names for such pages are Contents, Table of contents or similar.

Introduction[编辑]

An introduction page is the first page where learning begins. A book's introduction page commonly delves into purpose and goals of the book; what the book aims to teach, who the audience is, what the book's scope is, what topics the book covers, history of the subject, reasons to learn the subject, any conventions used in the book, or any other information that might make sense in an introductory chapter. Common names for such pages are Introduction or About. The later is more commonly used when information about the book is split from the introduction of the subject matter.

Navigation[编辑]

Navigation aids are links included on pages to make navigating between pages easier. Navigation aids can help make reading books easier for readers, but can also make maintaining and contributing to books harder. Most web browsers can back track through pages already visited, and the wiki software also adds links for navigating back to the table of contents if pages use the slash convention in their name and a book's main page is the table of contents as suggested. Using a template on pages can help reduce some of the maintenance issues, since only one page must be edited if things change. There is no standard for navigation aids and are optional due to their potential drawbacks.

Bibliography[编辑]

A bibliography is useful for collecting resources that were cited in the book, for linking to other useful resources on the subject that go beyond the scope of the book, and for including works that can aid in verifying the factual accuracy of what is written in the book. When used, such pages are commonly named Further Reading, References, or similar.

Glossary[编辑]

A glossary lists terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. A glossary is completely optional and is most useful in books aimed at people new to a field of study. Glossary should always be used for such a page.

Appendices[编辑]

An appendix includes important information that does not quiet fit into the flow of a book. For example a list of math formulas might be used as an appendix in a math book. Appendices are optional and books may have more than one appendix. Examples of common ways to name appendices are Appendix/Keywords and Appendix:Forumlas.

Cover pages[编辑]

Cover pages are useful for print versions. These should be separated from the main page (remember: Wikibooks is not paper) but can be used to make print versions.

Print versions[编辑]

See Wikibooks:Print versions for more on print versions.

Examples[编辑]

  • Control Systems great introduction describing (and linking to some of) the prerequisites for this book.
  • Spanish uses a splash page, but the table of contents is well annotated and accessible.
  • Haskell has a very nice layout sectioned off for audiences of different levels.

Style[编辑]

Where appropriate the first use a word or phrase akin to the title of the page should be marked in bold and when a new term is introduced, it is italicised.

Headers[编辑]

Headers should be used to divide page sections and provide content layout. Primary information should be marked with a "==", and information secondary to that should be marked with a "===" header, and so on, for example:

== Animals ==
There are many kinds of animals.

=== Cats ===
Cats are animals.

=== Dogs ===
Dogs are animals.

There is no need to provide systematised navigation between headers as the Linking section describes; only provide navigation between pages. A list of sections is automatically provided on the page when more then 2 headers are used.

Linking[编辑]

See also: Help:Links

Books with a deep sub-page hierarchy should include links on module pages to help navigate within its branch of the hierarchy. Templates can help maintain a navigation aid by including it on the necessary pages.

Footnotes and references[编辑]

See also Help:References.

Wikibooks has a couple of really simple implementations for footnotes and references. One uses {{note}} to place notes at the bottom of the page and {{ref}} to reference these at appropriate places in the text. The other places the references between <ref> and </ref> tags rigth in the text, and then uses the {{reflist}} to automatically generate a list of these at the bottom of the page.

Mathematics[编辑]

Format using HTML or in-line Mediawiki markup when using variables or other simple mathematical notation within a sentence. Use <math></math> tags for more complicated forms.

Italicise variables: a+b, etc. Do not italicise Greek letter variables, function names or their brackets.

To introduce mathematics notation in a display format, move to the start of the new line, add a single colon, and then the notation within the <math></math> tags. If punctuation follows the notation, do so inside the tags.

For example:

Markup Display
: <math>\int_0^\infty {1 \over {x^2 + 1}}\,dx = \frac{\pi}{2},</math>

is correctly used for "display" guidelines.

If a notation does not render as a PNG, you may force it to do so by adding a "\," at the end of the formula.


结构[编辑]

  1. 教科书一般可以分为“主页面”、“目录”和“内容”三部分。
    1. “目录”和“内容”必须是“主页面”的子页面;例如创建一本“示例教科书”,其目录的标题应为“示例教科书/目录”。
    2. “主页”和“目录”可以合并。
  2. 主页用于简要介绍该教科书和其他的一些基本信息。
    1. 主页必须包含的内容有——该教科书的分类、指向目录或内容的超链接等;若教科书参考了某些资料,也应在主页中说明。
    2. 主页中可以包含的内容有——教科书的封面、此教科书的描述等。
  3. 目录用于陈列教科书内容的链接。
    1. 目录内容的第一级目录应该用:00 percent.svg25 percent.svg50 percent.svg75 percent.svg100 percent.svg来表示该部分内容的完成情况。
    2. 建议将教科书内容作为目录页的子页面,以方便读者返回目录。
  4. 教科书中的内容应保持格式统一。
    1. 格式的内容可以由教科书的创建者建立;若已有多人参与了该教科书的编写时,统一格式的建立应在该教科书主页面的讨论页征得共识之后。
    2. 对现有统一格式的大幅更改亦需在主页面的讨论页征得共识。
    3. 若存在统一格式,应在主页面说明或加入指向说明统一格式的页面的超链接。
  5. 若教科书的结构设计确实美观合理的,不必拘泥于以上指引。