维基教科书:格式手冊

維基教科書,自由的教學讀本
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The Wikibooks Manual of Style serves to illustrate good structural and stylistic practices to help editors produce higher quality wikibooks.

Wikibook titles[編輯]

See also Wikibooks:Naming policy for information on how to name books and their chapters.

Wikibooks should be titled based on their aspect. This is a combination of the target audience, scope, and depth of the book. Several books on one topic but with differing aspects can exist (see Wikibooks:Forking policy for details). For example, a book on woodwork aimed at the general public may be entitled simply "Woodworking", and a mathematics text for commerce students may be called "Mathematics for Commerce" or "Commercial Mathematics" instead of simply "Mathematics".

Some people prefer to use title casing like books often do, while other people prefer to use sentence casing like Wikipedia does. Title casing can reduce the potential for conflict with categories. For this reason title casing is often preferred more by Wikibookians. Whichever scheme you use please be consistent and follow the existing style for books you are editing.

Structure[編輯]

See also book design for some helpful tips and ideas.

Main page[編輯]

The main page is generally the first page a new reader sees. It should give a quick overview of the scope, intended audience and layout of the book. Splash pages should be avoided. Often the layout is simply the full table of contents. Collections, printable versions and PDF files should be easily accessible from this page.

Links to the book from the card catalog office and external websites, should point to a book's main page. The subject index on the card catalog office requires the {{subject}} template to be placed on the main page. The book's main page or category should also be placed in any other categories that it belongs to. If you still require help with categorizing a book, please request assistance in the reading room.

Interlingual links should be placed on the book's main page. Books across language projects may be dissimilar even when about the same subject. Be wary about placing interlingual links on any other pages.

Table of contents[編輯]

In general, the table of contents should reside on the main page, giving readers an overview of the available material. In cases where this is impractical, a special page can be created for it. Common names for such pages are Contents, Table of contents or similar.

Introduction[編輯]

An introduction page is the first page where learning begins. A book's introduction page commonly delves into purpose and goals of the book; what the book aims to teach, who the audience is, what the book's scope is, what topics the book covers, history of the subject, reasons to learn the subject, any conventions used in the book, or any other information that might make sense in an introductory chapter. Common names for such pages are Introduction or About. The later is more commonly used when information about the book is split from the introduction of the subject matter.

Navigation[編輯]

Navigation aids are links included on pages to make navigating between pages easier. Navigation aids can help make reading books easier for readers, but can also make maintaining and contributing to books harder. Most web browsers can back track through pages already visited, and the wiki software also adds links for navigating back to the table of contents if pages use the slash convention in their name and a book's main page is the table of contents as suggested. Using a template on pages can help reduce some of the maintenance issues, since only one page must be edited if things change. There is no standard for navigation aids and are optional due to their potential drawbacks.

Bibliography[編輯]

A bibliography is useful for collecting resources that were cited in the book, for linking to other useful resources on the subject that go beyond the scope of the book, and for including works that can aid in verifying the factual accuracy of what is written in the book. When used, such pages are commonly named Further Reading, References, or similar.

Glossary[編輯]

A glossary lists terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. A glossary is completely optional and is most useful in books aimed at people new to a field of study. Glossary should always be used for such a page.

Appendices[編輯]

An appendix includes important information that does not quiet fit into the flow of a book. For example a list of math formulas might be used as an appendix in a math book. Appendices are optional and books may have more than one appendix. Examples of common ways to name appendices are Appendix/Keywords and Appendix:Forumlas.

Cover pages[編輯]

Cover pages are useful for print versions. These should be separated from the main page (remember: Wikibooks is not paper) but can be used to make print versions.

Print versions[編輯]

See Wikibooks:Print versions for more on print versions.

Examples[編輯]

  • Control Systems great introduction describing (and linking to some of) the prerequisites for this book.
  • Spanish uses a splash page, but the table of contents is well annotated and accessible.
  • Haskell has a very nice layout sectioned off for audiences of different levels.

Style[編輯]

Where appropriate the first use a word or phrase akin to the title of the page should be marked in bold and when a new term is introduced, it is italicised.

Headers[編輯]

Headers should be used to divide page sections and provide content layout. Primary information should be marked with a "==", and information secondary to that should be marked with a "===" header, and so on, for example:

== Animals ==
There are many kinds of animals.

=== Cats ===
Cats are animals.

=== Dogs ===
Dogs are animals.

There is no need to provide systematised navigation between headers as the Linking section describes; only provide navigation between pages. A list of sections is automatically provided on the page when more then 2 headers are used.

Linking[編輯]

See also: Help:Links

Books with a deep sub-page hierarchy should include links on module pages to help navigate within its branch of the hierarchy. Templates can help maintain a navigation aid by including it on the necessary pages.

Footnotes and references[編輯]

See also Help:References.

Wikibooks has a couple of really simple implementations for footnotes and references. One uses {{note}} to place notes at the bottom of the page and {{ref}} to reference these at appropriate places in the text. The other places the references between <ref> and </ref> tags rigth in the text, and then uses the {{reflist}} to automatically generate a list of these at the bottom of the page.

Mathematics[編輯]

Format using HTML or in-line Mediawiki markup when using variables or other simple mathematical notation within a sentence. Use <math></math> tags for more complicated forms.

Italicise variables: a+b, etc. Do not italicise Greek letter variables, function names or their brackets.

To introduce mathematics notation in a display format, move to the start of the new line, add a single colon, and then the notation within the <math></math> tags. If punctuation follows the notation, do so inside the tags.

For example:

Markup Display
: <math>\int_0^\infty {1 \over {x^2 + 1}}\,dx = \frac{\pi}{2},</math>

is correctly used for "display" guidelines.

If a notation does not render as a PNG, you may force it to do so by adding a "\," at the end of the formula.


結構[編輯]

  1. 教科書一般可以分為「主頁面」、「目錄」和「內容」三部分。
    1. 「目錄」和「內容」必須是「主頁面」的子頁面;例如創建一本「示例教科書」,其目錄的標題應為「示例教科書/目錄」。
    2. 「主頁」和「目錄」可以合併。
  2. 主頁用於簡要介紹該教科書和其他的一些基本信息。
    1. 主頁必須包含的內容有——該教科書的分類、指向目錄或內容的超連結等;若教科書參考了某些資料,也應在主頁中說明。
    2. 主頁中可以包含的內容有——教科書的封面、此教科書的描述等。
  3. 目錄用於陳列教科書內容的連結。
    1. 目錄內容的第一級目錄應該用:00 percent.svg25 percent.svg50 percent.svg75 percent.svg100 percent.svg來表示該部分內容的完成情況。
    2. 建議將教科書內容作為目錄頁的子頁面,以方便讀者返回目錄。
  4. 教科書中的內容應保持格式統一。
    1. 格式的內容可以由教科書的創建者建立;若已有多人參與了該教科書的編寫時,統一格式的建立應在該教科書主頁面的討論頁徵得共識之後。
    2. 對現有統一格式的大幅更改亦需在主頁面的討論頁徵得共識。
    3. 若存在統一格式,應在主頁面說明或加入指向說明統一格式的頁面的超連結。
  5. 若教科書的結構設計確實美觀合理的,不必拘泥於以上指引。