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药物化学/常用缩写

维基教科书,自由的教学读本

数字[编辑]

5-HT
5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine),又称血清素(serotonin)
7-ACA
7-氨基头孢烯酸(7-aminocephalosporinic acid)
6-APA
6-氨基青霉烷酸(6-aminopenicillanic acid)

A[编辑]

ACE
血管紧张素转化酶(angiotensin-converting enzyme)
ACh
乙酰胆碱(acetylcholine)
AChE
乙酰胆碱酯酶(acetylcholinesterase)
ACT
青蒿素联合治疗(artemisinin combination therapy)
ADAPT
抗体导向的抗体酶(abzyme)药物前治疗(antibody-directed abzyme prodrug therapy)
ADEPT
抗体导向的酶(enzyme)药物前治疗(antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy)
ADH
醇脱氢酶(alcohol dehydrogenase)
ADME
吸收,分布,代谢,排泄(absorption, distribution, metabolism,excretion)
ADP
二磷酸腺苷(adenosine diphosphate)
AIC
5-氨基咪唑-4-甲酰胺(5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide)
AIDS
后天免疫缺乏症,艾滋病(acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
AML
急性骨髓性白血病(acute myeloid leukaemia)
AMP
磷酸腺苷(adenosine 5'-monophosphate)
AT
血管紧张素(angiotensin)
ATP
三磷酸腺苷(adenosine 5'-triphosphate)
AUC
曲线下方面积(area under the curve)
cAMP
环磷酸腺苷(cyclic AMP)

B[编辑]

BuChE
丁酰胆碱酯酶(butylcholinesterase)

C[编辑]

CCK
胆囊收缩素(cholecystokinin)
CDKs
细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶(cyclin-dependent kinases)
CETP
胆固醇酯转移蛋白(cholesteryl ester transfer protein)
cGMP
环磷酸鸟苷(cyclic GMP)
CHO cells
中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(Chinese hamster ovarian cells)
CKIs
细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶抑制剂(cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors)
CLogP
分配系数的计算对数(calculated logarithm of the partition coefficient)
CML
慢性骨髓性白血病(chronic myeloid leukaemia)
CMV
巨细胞病毒(cytomegalovirus)
CNS
中央神经系统(central nervous system)
CoA
辅酶A(coenzyme A)
CoMFA
比较分子场分析(comparative molecular field analysis)
COMT
儿茶酚O-甲基转移酶(catechol O -methyltransferase)
COX
环氧合酶(cyclooxygenase)
CSD
剑桥结构数据库(Cambridge Structural Database)
CYP
构成细胞色素P450家族的酶

D[编辑]

D-Receptor
多巴胺受体(dopamine receptor)
dATP
脱氧腺苷三磷酸(deoxyadenosine triphosphate)
DCC
二环己基碳二亚胺(dicyclohexylcarbodiimide)
dCTP
脱氧胞嘧啶三磷酸(Deoxycytosine triphosphate)
DG
二酰基甘油(diacylglycerol)
dGTP
去氧鸟苷三磷酸(deoxyguanosine triphosphate)
DHFR
二氢叶酸还原酶(dihydrofolate reductase)
DMAP
二甲基氨基吡啶(dimethylaminopyridine)
DNA
去氧核糖核酸(deoxyribonucleic acid)
DOR
δ阿片受体(delta opioid receptor)
dsDNA
双链DNA(double-stranded DNA)
dsRNA
双链RNA(double-stranded RNA)
dTMP
脱氧胸苷酸单磷酸(deoxythymidylate monophosphate)
dTTP
脱氧胸苷酸三磷酸酯(deoxythymidylate triphosphate)
dUMP
脱氧尿苷酸单磷酸(deoxyuridylate monophosphate)

E[编辑]

EC50
达到最大可能效力的50%,所需要的药物浓度
Es
Taft's 空间因子(Taft's steric factor)
EGF
表皮生长因子(epidermal growth factor)
EGF-R
表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor)
EMEA
欧洲药品评估机构(European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products)
EPC
欧洲专利公约(European Patent Convention)
EPO
欧洲专利局(European Patent Office)

F[编辑]

FDA
美国食品和药物管理局(US Food and Drug Administration)
FdUMP
氟脱氧尿嘧啶单磷酸酯(fluoro deoxy uracil monophosphate)
FGF
成纤维细胞生长因子(fibroblast growth factor)
FGF-R
成纤维细胞生长因子受体(fibroblast growth factor receptor)
FH4
四氢叶酸(tetrahydrofolate)
F
口服生物利用度(oral bioavailability)
F
芳香族取代基在QSAR中的诱导作用(inductive effect of an aromatic substituent in QSAR)
F-SPE
氟固相萃取(fluorous solid phase extraction)
FLOG
flexible ligands oriented on grid
FPGS
叶酰聚谷氨酸合成酶(folylpolyglutamate synthetase)
FPP
法呢基二磷酸酯(farnesyl diphosphate)
FT
法呢基转移酶(farnesyl transferase)
FTI
法呢基转移酶抑制剂(farnesyl transferase inhibitor)

G[编辑]

G-Protein
鸟嘌呤核苷酸结合蛋白(guanine nucleotide binding protein)
GABA
γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid)
GAP
GTP酶激活蛋白(GTPase activating protein)
GCP
药品优良临床试验规范(Good Clinical Practice)
GDEPT
基因定向酶前药治疗(gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy)
GDP
鸟苷二磷酸(guanosine diphosphate)
GEF
鸟嘌呤核苷酸交换因子(guanine nucleotide exchange factors)
GGTase
香叶基香叶基转移酶(geranylgeranyltransferase)
GH
生长激素(growth hormone)
GIT
胃肠道(gastrointestinal tract)
GLP
优良实验室操作(Good Laboratory Practice)
GMC
综合医务委员会(General Medical Council)
GMP
良好生产规范(Good Manufacturing Practice)
GMP
鸟苷酸单磷酸(guanosine monophosphate)
GnRH
促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
gp
糖蛋白(glycoprotein)
GSK
葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline)
GTP
鸟苷三磷酸(guanosine triphosphate)

H[编辑]

h-PEPT
人肠道质子依赖寡肽转运蛋白(human intestinal proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter)
H-receptor
组织胺受体(histamine receptor)
HA
血凝素(hemagglutinin)
HAART
highly active antiretroviral therapy
HAMA
人抗小鼠抗体(human anti-mouse antibodies)
HBA
氢键受体(hydrogen bond acceptor)
HBD
氢键供体(hydrogen bond donor)
HCV
丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus)
HDL
高密度脂蛋白(high density lipoprotein)
HERG
人类醚转运相关基因(human ether-a-go-go related gene)
HIF
缺氧诱导因子(hypoxia-inducible factor)
HIV
人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodefi ciency virus)
HMGSCoA
3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A)
HMGR
3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A还原酶(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)
HOMO
最高占有分子轨道(highest occupied molecular orbital)
HPLC
高效液相色谱(high-performance liquid chromatography)
HPMA
N-(2-羟丙基)甲基丙烯酰胺(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide)
HPT
人肠道二肽/三肽转运蛋白(human intestinal di-/tri peptide transporter)
HRV
人类鼻病毒(human rhinoviruses)
HSV
单纯疱疹病毒(herpes simplex virus)
HTS
高通量筛选(high-throughput screening)

I[编辑]

IC50
将标靶抑制50%所需的药物浓度
IGF-1R
胰岛素生长因子1受体(insulin growth factor 1 receptor)
IND
新药研究豁免(Investigational Exemption to a New Drug Application)
IP3
肌醇三磷酸(inositol triphosphate)
IPER
国际初步审查报告(International Preliminary Examination Report)
IRB
机构审查委员会(Institutional Review Board)
ISR
国际搜索报告(International Search Report)
ITC
等温滴定量热法(isothermal titration calorimetry)
IUPAC
国际纯化学和应用化学联合会(International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
IV
静脉(intravenous)

K[编辑]

KD
解离结合常数(dissociation binding constant)
Ki
抑制常数(inhibition constant)
KM
米氏常数(Michaelis constant)
KOR
κ-阿片受体(kappa opioid receptor)

L[编辑]

LAAM
L-α-乙酰甲羟(L-α-acetylmethadol)
LD50
杀死50%的测试动物,所需的致死剂量
LDH
乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase)
LH
黄体激素(luteinizing hormone)
LHRH
黄体激素释放激素(luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones)
LipE
亲脂效率(lipophilic efficiency)
LogP
分配系数(partition coefficient)的对数
LDL
低密度脂蛋白(low density lipoprotein)
LUMO
最低未占用的分子轨道(lowest unoccupied molecular orbital)

M[编辑]

M-receptor
毒蕈碱受体(muscarinic receptor)
MAA
营销授权申请(Marketing Authorization Application)
MAB
单克隆抗体(monoclonal antibody)
MAO
单胺氧化酶(monoamine oxidase)
MAOI
单胺氧化酶抑制剂(monoamine oxidase inhibitor)
MAOS
微波辅助有机合成(microwave assisted organic synthesis)
MAP
丝裂原活化蛋白(mitogen-activated protein)
MAPK
丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(mitogen-activated protein kinases)
MCH-R
黑色素浓缩激素受体(melanin-concentrating hormone receptor)
MDR
多重抗药性(multidrug resistance)
MDRTB
多重抗药性结核病(multidrug-resistant tuberculosis)
MEP
分子静电势(molecular electrostatic potential)
miRNA
微RNA(micro RNA)
miRNP
微RNA蛋白(micro RNA protein)
MMP
基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinase)
MMPI
基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂(matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor)
MOR
μ-阿片受体(mu opioid receptor)
MR
摩尔折射率(molar refractivity)
mRNA
信使RNA(messenger RNA)
MRSA
抗甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MTDD
多目标新药研发(multi-target drug discovery)
mTRKI
多酪氨酸受体激酶抑制剂(multi-tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitor)
MWt
分子量(molecular weight)

N[编辑]

N-receptor
烟碱受体(nicotinic receptor)
NA
神经氨酸酶(neuraminidase)或去甲肾上腺素(noradrenaline)
NAD+ /NADH
烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
NADP+ /NADPH
烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
NAG
N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖(N-acetylglucosamine)
NAM
N-乙酰谷氨酸(N-acetylmuramic acid)
NCE
新化学实体(new chemical entity)
NDA
新药申请(New Drug Application)
NICE
国家健康与临床优化研究所(National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence)
NMDA
N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(N -methyl-D-aspartate)
NME
新分子实体(new molecular entity)
NMR
核磁共振(nuclear magnetic resonance)
NNRTI
非核苷逆转录酶抑制剂(non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
NO
一氧化氮(nitric oxide)
NOR
痛敏肽阿片受体(nociceptin opioid receptor)
NOS
一氧化氮合酶(nitric oxide synthase)
NRTI
核苷逆转录酶抑制剂(nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
NSAID
非类固醇消炎药(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug)
NVOC
硝基甲酰氧基羰基(nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)

O[编辑]

ORL1
阿片受体样受体(opioid receptor-like receptor)

P[编辑]

P
分配系数(partition coefficient)
PABA
对氨基苯甲酸(p-aminobenzoic acid)
PBP
青霉素结合蛋白(penicillin binding protein)
PCP
苯环利定(phencyclidine),别名“天使尘”(angel dust)
PCT
专利合作条约(patent cooperation treaty)
PDB
蛋白质数据库(protein data bank)
PDE
磷酸二酯酶(phosphodiesterase)
PDGF
血小板衍生生长因子(platelet-derived growth factor)
PDGF-R
血小板衍生生长因子受体(platelet-derived growth factor receptor)
PDT
光动力疗法(photodynamic therapy)
PEG
聚乙二醇(polyethylene glycol)
PGE
前列腺素E(prostaglandin E)
PGF
前列腺素F(prostaglandin F)
PIP2
磷脂酰肌醇二磷酸(phosphatidylinositol diphosphate)
PI
蛋白酶抑制剂(protease inhibitor)
PKA
蛋白激酶A(protein kinase A)
PKB
蛋白激酶B(protein kinase B)
PKC
蛋白激酶C(protein kinase C)
PLC
磷脂酶C(phospholipase C)
PLS
偏最小平方法(partial least squares)
PPBI
蛋白质 - 蛋白质结合抑制剂(protein–protein binding inhibitor)
PPI
质子泵抑制剂(proton pump inhibitor)
PPts
吡啶𬭩4-甲苯磺酸盐(pyridinium 4-toluenesulfonate)

Q[编辑]

QSAR
定量结构活性关系(quantitative structure–activity relationships)

R[编辑]

r
回归或相关系数(regression or correlation coefficient)
R
芳香族取代基在QSAR中的共振效应(resonance effect of an aromatic substituent in QSAR)
RES
网状内皮系统(reticuloendothelial system)
RFC
还原叶酸载体(reduced folate carrier)
RISC
RNA诱导沉默复合物(RNA induced silencing complex)
RMSD
均方根距离(root mean square distance)
rRNA
核糖体RNA(ribosomal RNA)
RNA
核糖核酸(ribonucleic acid)

S[编辑]

s
估计或标准偏差的标准差(standard error of estimate or standard deviation)
SAR
结构活性关系(structure–activity relationships)
SCAL
安全捕获酸不稳定接头(safety-catch acid-labile linker)
SCF
干细胞因子(stem cell factor)
SCID
严重复合型免疫缺乏症(severe combined immunodeficiency disease)
SKF
史密斯-葛兰-佛兰西公司(Smith-Kline and French),葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline,GSK)的前身
SNRI
选择性去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂(selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors)
siRNA
小抑制性RNA(small inhibitory RNA)
snRNA
小核RNA(small nuclear RNA)
SOP
标准操作流程(standard operating procedure)
SPA
邻近闪烁分析技术(scintillation proximity assay)
SPE
固相萃取(solid phase extraction)
SPOS
溶液相有机合成(solution phase organic synthesis)
SPR
表面等离子体共振(surface plasmon resonance)
ssDNA
单链DNA(single-stranded DNA)
SSRI
选择性血清素再摄取抑制剂(selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
ssRNA
单链RNA(single-stranded RNA)

T[编辑]

TB
肺结核(tuberculosis)
TCA
三环抗抑郁药(tricyclic antidepressants)
TFA
三氟乙酸(trifluoroacetic acid)
TGF-α
转化生长因子-α(transforming growth factor-α)
TGF-β
转化生长因子-β(transforming growth factor-β)
THF
四氢呋喃(tetrahydrofuran)
TM
跨膜(transmembrane)
TNF
肿瘤坏死因子(tumour necrosis factor)
TNF-R
肿瘤坏死因子受体(tumour necrosis factor receptor)
TNT
三硝基甲苯(trinitrotoluene)
TRAIL
TNF相关凋亡诱导配体(TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)
TRIPS
贸易相关方面的知识产权(trade related aspects of intellectual property rights)
tRNA
转移RNA(transfer RNA)

U[编辑]

UTI
尿道感染(urinary tract infection)

V[编辑]

vdW
凡德华(van der Waals)
VEGF
血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor)
VEGF-R
血管内皮生长因子受体(vascular endothelial growth factor receptor)
VIP
血管活性肠肽(vasoactive intestinal peptide)
VOC–Cl
乙烯基氧羰基氯(vinyloxycarbonyl chloride)
VRE
抗万古霉素肠球菌(vancomycin-resistant enterococci)
VRSA
抗万古霉素金黄色葡萄球菌(vancomycin-resistant Staphylococci aureus)
VZV
水痘带状疱疹病毒(varicella-zoster viruses)

W[编辑]

WHO
世界卫生组织
WTO
世界贸易组织