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人類生理學/感官

维基教科书,自由的教学读本

什麼是感覺?[编辑]

化學受器[编辑]

味覺系統[编辑]

Papilla[编辑]

Structure of Taste Buds[编辑]

Types of Taste[编辑]

Disorders of the Tongue[编辑]

嗅覺系統[编辑]

Receptors[编辑]

In the brain[编辑]

Pheromonal olfaction[编辑]

Olfaction and Gustation[编辑]

Disorders of Olfaction[编辑]

視覺[编辑]

眼睛解剖[编辑]

眼睛運動[编辑]

我們如何看東西[编辑]

Depth Perception[编辑]

Diseases, disorders, and age-related changes[编辑]

思考[编辑]

  1. 為什麼我們平常不會注意到盲點?
  2. 看著一個光源十秒鐘,然後看旁邊的白紙,你觀察到什麼?原因是?
  3. 為什麼晚上盯著一個東西看,他會暫時消失?要怎麼讓他重新出現?
  4. 桿狀細胞對什麼敏感?錐狀細胞對什麼敏感?
  5. 解釋顛茄(Deadly Nightshade)的作用

聽覺[编辑]

耳朵解剖學[编辑]

Process of Hearing[编辑]

水中的聽覺[编辑]

Localization of Sound by Humans[编辑]

平衡感的機制[编辑]

Disorders with the Ear[编辑]

思考[编辑]

觸覺[编辑]

巴齊尼氏小體(Pacinian Corpuscles)[编辑]

梅斯納氏小體(Meissner's Corpuscles)[编辑]

梅克爾觸覺盤(Merkel's Discs)[编辑]

魯菲尼小體(Ruffini corpuscles)[编辑]

觸覺失調[编辑]

案例研究[编辑]

The newborn's senses[编辑]

Review Questions[编辑]

詞彙表[编辑]

嗅覺喪失(Anosmia)
喪失嗅覺的疾病
聽道(Auditory Canal)

Tube from the auditory meatus or opening of the ear to the tympanic membrane

耳咽管(Auditory Tube)

Either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum

化學感受(Chemoreception)

Physiological response of a sense organ to a chemical stimulus

脈絡膜(Choroid)

Vascular layer of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera

Circumvallate papillae: Papillae that are present on the back of the oral part of the tongue

耳蝸(Cochlea)

Is concerned with hearing, resembling a shell of a snail

嗅覺障礙(Dysosmia)

When things smell differently than they should

Equilibrium: Sense of balance

Extraocular muscles: Six muscles that control eye movements: lateral rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique and superior oblique

Filiform papillae: Thin, longer papillae that don't contain taste buds but are the most numerous

Foliate papillae: Ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue

Fungiform papillae: These are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue- slightly mushroom shaped

味覺(Gustation)
對味道的感覺

Hair Cell: Mechanosensors for hearing, columnar cells each with a bundle of 100-200 specialized cilia at the top

觸覺(Haptic)

From the Greek Haphe, means pertaining to the sense of touch

Hyposmia: Decreased ability to smell

內耳(Inner Ear)

Innermost part of the ear, contains the cochlea, westibule and semi-circular canals

機械感受器(Mechanoreceptor)

Sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion

Meissner's Corpuscle: Encapsulated unmyelinated nerve endings, usually found in areas sensitive to light touch

中耳(Middle Ear)

Air Filled Cavity behind the Ear Drum, includes most of the ear Drum and ear Bones

Nasopharynx: Nasal part of the pharynx that lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate

Nociception: The perception of pain

嗅覺(Olfaction)
感覺香味與臭味等的感受
中耳炎(Otitis Media)
中耳部份的發炎
外耳(Outer Ear)

External portion of the ear, includes the auricle, ear canal and surface of the ear drum

Oval Window: Fenestra that has the base of the stapes attached to it

Pacinian Corpuscles; Detect gross pressure changes and vibrations

Papilla: Specialized epithelial cells that are small projections on the top of the tongue

Perception: The brain’s interpretation of a sensation

Phantosmia: Phenomenon of smelling odors that aren't really present (AKA Phantom odors)

Photoreceptors: Specialized type of neuron found in the eye's retina that is capable of phototransduction

Pinna: Auricle of the ear

Retina: Thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball of vertebrates and some cephalopods

Round Window: Fenestra leading into the cochlea

Sclera: White outer coating of the eye- gives the eye its shape and helps to protect the delicate inner parts

Semicircular Canals: Certain canals of the inner ear

Sensation: Occurs when nerve impulses arrive in the brain

Sensory adaptation: A decrease in response to stimuli

Stapes: One of the small bones in the tympanum of the ear; the stirrups bone

Tactition: The sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin

Tympanic Membrane: The membrane in the ear that vibrates to produce sound

鮮味(Umami)
源自日文字,代表類似肉或者魚的味道。主要是胺基酸的味道

References[编辑]